of Colchis in the 7th-3rd cent. BC (Anno Domini). Part of the area formed a county (saeristavo) within the Kingdom of Iberia (Caucasian Iberia) in the late 4th century BC. Colonized by Greek (Greeks) merchants in the 5th and 4th cent. B.C., the coastal Adjara later came under Roman (Rome) rule. Bathus (Bathys) (the present day Batumi) and Apsaros (Apsaruntos) (modern Gonio) were the key cities and fortresses at that time. Archeological excavations have revealed ruins of a rich
ancient town at Pichvnari near the present day town of Kobuleti. In the 2nd century AD, Bathus was an important military base for Roman (Ancient Rome) legions. Apsaros was famous for its theatre. Near the town are the ruins of a fortress, mentioned as ''Sarapana'' by Strabo and ''Sarapanis'' by Procopius as a strong position on the road that led from Colchis to Iberia (Caucasian Iberia). **Encountered by Dante in '''Limbo (#Limbo)'''. '''Inf. IV, 141'''. * Circe: Mythical (Greek mythology) daughter of Helios, god of the Sun, and sister of Aeetis, king of Colchis. She was an enchantress who lived near the Gulf of Gaeta, who turned the crew of '''Odysseus (#Ulysses)''' into pigs on their journey home from the '''Trojan war (#Troy)'''. But Odysseus, with the help of Hermes, forced her to release his men from her spell (Ovid, ''Met''. XIV, 435–40). She fell in love with Odysseus and he stayed with her for another year and in some accounts, she had a son Telegonus with Odysseus, who was to accidentally kill him. **It is said, by Ulysses (Odysseus), that she "beguiled" him. '''Inf. XXVI, 90–2'''. **One of a group of classical poets (see '''Homer (#Homer)''') encountered in '''Limbo (#Limbo)'''. '''Inf. IV, 89'''. * Hypsipyle: Queen of Lemnos, she was seduced and abandoned by '''Jason (#Jason)''' while in route to the Colchis with the Argonauts. **Pitied by '''Virgil (#Virgil)''' for Jason's actions. '''Inf. XVIII, 88–95'''. **One of two spendthrifts (the other called "Lano" is probably '''Arcolano of Siena (#Lano)''') whose punishment consists of being hunted by female hounds. '''Inf. XIII, 115–29'''. * Jason: Greek mythological (Greek mythology) hero who led the Argonauts to Colchis in search of the Golden Fleece. **Found among the Seducers, for his seduction and abandonment of '''Hypsipyle (#Hypsipyle)''' and '''Medea (#Medea)'''. '''Inf. XVIII, 83–99'''. **How he became an apostle is contrasted with the '''Simoniacs (#Simony)'''. '''Inf. XIX, 94–6'''. * Medea: Mythical (Greek mythology) daughter of Aeetes, king of Colchis, she helped '''Jason (#Jason)''' get the Golden Fleece, but was abandoned by him. She took revenge by killing their two children. **For her also is Jason punished. '''Inf. XVIII, 96'''. Importance of ancient civilizations Diop supported his arguments with references to ancient authors such as Herodotus and Strabo. For example, when Herodotus wished to argue that the Colchian (Colchis) people were related to the Egyptians, he said that the Colchians were "black, with curly hair" Herodotus, ''History'', Book II. Diop used statements by these writers to illustrate his theory that the ancient Egyptians had the same physical traits as modern black Africans (skin colour, hair type). His interpretation of anthropological data (such as the role of matriarchy) and archeological data led him to conclude that Egyptian culture was a Black African culture. In linguistics, he believed in particular that the Wolof (Wolof language) language of contemporary West Africa is related to ancient Egyptian. C Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia – Caucasian Iberia - Caucasian Iberians – Caucasus Airlines – Chalybes – Chanturia, Giorgi (Giorgi Chanturia) – Chiaberashvili, Zurab (Zurab Chiaberashvili) – Chiatura – Chibirov, Ludwig (Ludwig Chibirov) – Chiburdanidze, Maia (Maia Chiburdanidze) – Chikobava, Arnold (Arnold Chikobava) – Chikvaidze, Aleksandr (Aleksandr Chikvaidze) – Chilashvili, Levan (Levan Chilashvili) – Cholokashvili, Kakutsa (Kakutsa Cholokashvili) – Choloki River – Chuburkhindji – Coat of Arms of Georgia – Colchis - Colchians – Commonwealth of Independent States – Communist Party of Abkhazia – Communist Party of Georgia – Constantine I of Imereti – Culture of Georgia (Culture of Georgia (country)) '''Anicetus''' was the leader of an unsuccessful anti-Roman (Roman Empire) uprising in Polemonia in 69. Formerly a freedman of King Polemon II of Pontus (Polemon (Cilicia)), Anicetus commanded the royal fleet until Pontus was converted into a Roman province under Emperor Nero in 63. During the civil war (Year of the four emperors#Vitellius to Vespasian) following Nero’s death, Anicetus sided with Vitellius and led a general insurrection against Vespasian in Pontus and Colchis 69. The rebels destroyed the Roman fleet (Roman Navy) (''Classis Pontica'') in a sudden attack on Trapezus and then turned to piracy using a type of boat known as ''camarae''. Pompey in Command On the approach of Pompey, Mithridates retreated towards Armenia (Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity)) but was defeated. As Tigranes the Great now refused to receive him into his dominions, Mithridates resolved to plunge into the heart of Colchis, and thence make his way to his own dominions in the Cimmerian Bosporus. Pompey now marched against Tigranes, whose kingdom and authority were now severely weakened. Tigranes then sued for peace and met with Pompey to plead a cessation of hostilities. The Armenian Kingdom now became an allied client state of Rome. Mythology In Hellenistic astrology, the sign of the ram was mythologically associated with the golden winged ram that rescued Phrixos and his sister Helle (Helle (mythology)) from the altar where they were to be offered as a sacrifice to Zeus. The golden ram carried them to the land of Colchis but on the way Helle fell into the sea and drowned. When Phrixos arrived at Colchis he sacrificed the ram to Zeus and presented the golden fleece to his father-in-law, the King of Colchis. The fleece was then hung upon a sacred oak and guarded by a dragon until rescued by Jason and the Argonauts. The myth recounts that Zeus was so moved by the ram's fate that he gave it the greatest honour of being moved to the heavens. Marilyn Reid, ''Mythical Star Signs'', p.15. Lulu.com, 2007. ISBN 9781847536235. thumb 250px left Mingrelian lady (right) negotiating with the invading Turks. 1856 (File:Merr Zuther Del'. Interview between Omer Pacha & A Mingrelian lady. Head quarters choloni. Laurence Oliphant. The Trans-Caucasian campaign of the Turkish army under Omer Pasha. 1856.P.188.jpg) The Mingrelians are descendants of several Colchian (Colchis) tribes (Such as: Manraloi, Heniochi, Machelones, Macrones, Mossynoeci, Drilae, Zydretae) and constitute one of the building blocks of the unified Georgian nation that emerged after the kingdoms of the west (Colchis) and east (Iberia (Caucasian Iberia)) were united under Christianity in the middle of the first millennium AD. Early in the Middle Ages, Mingrelian aristocracy and clergy, later followed by laymen, adopted the national Georgian tongue as a language of literacy and culture. After the fragmentation of the Kingdom of Georgia in the 15th century, Mingrelia was an autonomous principality until being annexed by the Russian Empire in the 19th century. thumb 250px left Mingrelian lady (right) negotiating with the invading Turks. 1856 (File:Merr Zuther Del'. Interview between Omer Pacha & A Mingrelian lady. Head quarters choloni. Laurence Oliphant. The Trans-Caucasian campaign of the Turkish army under Omer Pasha. 1856.P.188.jpg) The Mingrelians are descendants of several Colchian (Colchis) tribes (Such as: Manraloi, Heniochi, Machelones, Macrones, Mossynoeci, Drilae, Zydretae) and constitute one of the building blocks of the unified Georgian nation that emerged after the kingdoms of the west (Colchis) and east (Iberia (Caucasian Iberia)) were united under Christianity in the middle of the first millennium AD. Early in the Middle Ages, Mingrelian aristocracy and clergy, later followed by laymen, adopted the national Georgian tongue as a language of literacy and culture. After the fragmentation of the Kingdom of Georgia in the 15th century, Mingrelia was an autonomous principality until being annexed by the Russian Empire in the 19th century. In the 1st century BC, after his defeat by Pompey in 63 BC, Mithradates VI (Mithradates VI of Pontus), King of Pontus, fled with a small army from Colchis (modern Georgia) over the Caucasus Mountains to Crimea and made plans to raise yet another army to take on the Romans. His eldest living son, Machares, viceroy of Cimmerian Bosporus, was unwilling to aid his father. Mithradates had Machares killed, and took the throne of the Bosporan Kingdom. Mithradates then ordered conscription and preparations for war. In 63 BC, Pharnaces II, his younger son, led a rebellion against his father, joined by Roman exiles in the core of Mithridates' Pontic army. Mithradates withdrew to the citadel in Panticapaeum, where he committed suicide the same year. Pompey the Great buried Mithradates in the rock-cut tombs of his ancestors in Amasya, the old capital of Pontus. thumb 200px ''Heracles and Ladon'', Roman relief plate, late era. (Image:Herakles Ladon Staatliche Antikensammlungen SL89.jpg) '''Ladon''' (Greek (Greek language): Λάδων; gen (Genitive case).: Λάδωνος) was the serpent-like dragon that twined and twisted around the tree in the Garden of the Hesperides (Hesperides) and guarded the golden apples (Golden apple). He was overcome by Heracles. Fifteen long years later, Jason and the Argonauts passed by on their chthonic return journey from Colchis and heard the lament of "shining" Aigle (Aegle (mythology)), one of the three Hesperides, and viewed the still-twitching Ladon. ''Argonautica'', Book IV. , "gate") is the simplest form of Georgian (Georgia (country)) folk architecture with a long history behind. It is a rustic house, the central feature of which is a pyramidal cupola-shaped, stepped vault (''gvirgvini'') – made of hewn logs and beams – on pillars, with a central opening at the top which serves as both a window and smoke flue. The Roman (Ancient Rome) authority Vitruvius (1st century BC) includes in his ''De architectura'' a description of a Colchian (Colchis) dwelling, the ancient prototype of a Georgian ''darbazi''. Lang, David Marshall (David Marshall Lang) (1966), ''The Georgians'', pp. 119-123. Praeger Publishers. Repulsed by the Assyrians, a subdivision of the Kaska might have passed north-eastwards to the Caucasus, where they probably blended with the Proto-Colchian (Colchians) or Lazo (Laz people)-Zan (Zan people) autochthons, forming a polity which was known as the Qulhi to the Urartians (Urartu) and later as the Colchi (Colchis) of the Greeks (Ancient Greeks). Another branch might have established themselves in Cappadocia which in the 8th century BC became a vassal of Assyria. It is named after the ancient geographic region of Colchis, which covered a large area along the Black Sea coast. The author of the encyclopedia evaluates his work of 1260 pages: "I don’t know why no archeological excavations have been made in the Pontic coast of Anatolia. Querying why no excavations have been made in such a region that has a dense settlement as mentioned in Anabasis (w:Anabasis) of Xenophon (w:Xenophon) (B.C 401) is not the subject of this book. However, undoubtedly it will not be an optimistic experience to see that less excavations have been made here than in Crimea (w:Crimea) and Colchis (w:Colchis). Another interesting and discuss-worthy issue is why a realistic analysis of the original names of villages and quarters, used by the people even after the changes of the names in Republic era, is not been made in works on the region’s culture and history, including studies in Turkish (w:Turkish). Limiting myself to cities as Ordu (w:Ordu), Giresun (w:Giresun), Trabzon (w:Trabzon), Rize (w:Rize) and Artvin (w:Artvin), I worked on original words, idioms and toponyms used by Turkish dialect speakers, independent from their native language. I made comparisons with vernaculars from surrounding cities including Samsun (w:Samsun), Erzurum (w:Erzurum) and Gümüşhane (w:Gümüşhane), Anatolia, and from some surrounding countries. I hope that the comparison of the original toponyms with equivalents from Anatolia, Greece (w:Greece) Hellas (w:Hellas), Armenia (w:Armenia), Georgia (w:Georgia), Azerbaijan (w:Azerbaijan) and other Turkish states could be useful for those interested in regional history, and influential for researchers."
and fortresses at that time. Archeological excavations have revealed ruins of a rich ancient town at Pichvnari near the present day town of Kobuleti. In the 2nd century AD, Bathus was an important military base for Roman (Ancient Rome) legions. Apsaros was famous for its theatre. Adjara under Ottoman rule In 1547, the Ottomans (Ottoman Empire) raided the province and captured Batumi. Liberated by Prince Rostom Gurieli of Guria in 1564, the region fell under the Turkish rule again in 1582. In 1609, Prince Mamia Gurieli temporarily relieved Batumi. However, Guria lost the province to the Ottomans in 1614. The area was divided into two sandjaks and submitted to the Pasha of Childir (Akhaltsikhe) (Akhaltsikhe). Part of Adjarians fled to other Georgian regions. Those who remained were converted to Islam. During the Crimean War of 1853-1856 and Russo-Turkish War (Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)) of 1877-1878, thousands of Adjarians were recruited in the Ottoman army. WikiPedia:Batumi Commons:Category:Batumi
, United States, is home to one of the United States' most extensive collections of Himalayan artifacts. The museum was created by Jacques Marchais, an American woman, to serve as a bridge between the West and the rich
ancient and cultural traditions of Tibet and the Himalayan region (Himalayas). ref
Island Advance The museum was created by Jacques Marchais, an American woman, to serve as a bridge between the West and the rich ancient and cultural traditions of Tibet and the Himalayan region (Himalayas).