Places Known For

number written


Hanoi

their stores. Many shops that have bike attendants will give you a ticket in exchange for parking your bike. This may or may not come with a fee typically ranging from 2,000-5,000 dong. The ticket will either have your license plate number written on it, or the ticket itself will be numbered, with that number subsequently chalked somewhere on your bike. In such cases, where you've been given a ticket, the attendants may ask that you not lock the steering column or front wheel of your bike so that they can rearrange the bikes as customers come and go. By bus Scam free, cheap but a bit difficult to comprehend at first, the '''buses''' in Hanoi are relatively fast and surprisingly comfortable. Pick up a map with printed bus lines at the Trang Tien street (the book street by the Opera house) and spend a few minutes to identify the over 60 bus lines, find your bus stop, wait for the bus, pay 7,000 dong (as of May 2014) and off you go. If you are unfamiliar with the city, make sure to inform the mostly helpful conductor where you want to get off. List bus routes: English, Vietnamese Bus maps: English, Vietnamese, PDF of the Bus Network By car Hanoi's traffic is extremely chaotic, with seemingly perpetual traffic jams, and a large number of almost suicidal motorcyclists, cyclists and pedestrians. Vietnamese drivers are among the most aggressive in the world, and lanes are effectively non-existent. As such, driving yourself around is not recommended, and you should leave your transportation needs in the hands of professionals. By metro The city will be served by Metro sometime around 2015. Construction began in 2010. See


Vilnius

if you need to get from periphery of the city to the center, while shortest trips will cost you ~€4. You should always call a taxi by phone, even if you see a taxi on the street nearby. Street taxis charge as much as twice the price as taxis called by phone. Good practice is to dial the number written on the vehicle you see, tell dispatcher the address you're at, and you will most likely get the same vehicle for a lower price. Somewhat higher priced and higher class taxi companies are ''Jazzexpress'', ''Smarttaxi'', and municipality-owned ''Vilnius veža''. Every car is relatively new and equipped with card reader so you can pay for the trip using your debit or credit card. Also you can order taxi on the internet here. Smartphone apps may be found at the bottom of the screen, also at taxify.eu for higher class taxi companies. All taxi cars must have yellow license plate starting with letter ''T'' with additional 5 numbers and a 'Taxi' sign on the roof. Detailed price list alongside driver's taxi-operator license must be placed on the panel right in front of passenger seat next to the driver. While paying for the taxi service it is expected to leave €0.50-1 tip for the driver. By car Traveling by car is not advised during rush hours (7-9AM and 4-6.30PM) to and from the city center due to traffic jams. Parking fees can differ from 0.30€ h to 1.80€ h in the old town. Car rental There are several well known foreign car rental companies as well as several domestic companies in Vilnius. It is advised to book online from an English language website such as Car Rental or Neo Rent. Cheaper options available are: RentDay, JARR autoservisas, Drive.lt. City-Bee operates a car sharing network where you can rent a car by the hour. There is no contract nor monthly fee, you pay only for the service when you use the car, no parking expenses when you are not using it. There are 13 pick-up points throughout the city, mostly in the centre and some relevant points in northern districts. By bicycle In the city centre you often find bike lanes; however, that doesn't mean they are well respected. The only "real" bicycle path leads along the river Neris North to Verkiai Nature park and the "Green lakes". * Daytrip: If you go north to the "Green lakes" and have a decent map you can ride up to ''"Europos parkas"'' outdoor exhibition of contemporary art, then proceed on to Geographical center of Europe. Bicycle trails Five reasonable bicycle routes within city limits and Green Lakes area are presented in bilingual leaflet Bicycle Routes in the City of Vilnius. Development of bicycle path connections and improvement of the existing network is scheduled to complete until 2020. New paths to the most remote districts and recreation areas as well as densification of the network in the centre is scheduled to complete in c.2027. So far development is fragmentary and carried out in relevant spots "step by step". Bicycle rental * WikiPedia:Vilnius Dmoz:Regional Europe Lithuania Localities Vilnius Commons:Category:Vilnius


Washington, D.C.

publishes maps and timetables for all individual routes, as well as system maps for its routes in D.C., Maryland, and Virginia. Most routes cost a flat fare of $1.75. (Seniors pay half fare, up to two children ages four and younger ride free per one paying adult.) Every bus stop has a number written on it, which you can enter on the WMATA Next Bus Arrivals website or by phone (+1 202 637-7000) to get a highly accurate estimate of when the next bus will arrive to that stop, including active tracking on Google Maps. Free iPhone and Android apps that provide live Metrobus data are also available. The following important routes provide reliable and direct service along the city's most well-traveled corridors, running about every ten to twenty minutes: *'''16th St Line''' (S2, S4, S9) — north-south service on 16th St between the Silver Spring Metro Station on the Red Line and East End (Washington, D.C. East End). It's the route of choice to reach the Fitzgerald Tennis Center and Carter Barron Amphitheater at Rock Creek Park. *'''Massachusetts Ave Line''' (N2, N4, N6) — runs along Massachusetts Ave between the Friendship Heights (Washington, D.C. Upper Northwest) and Farragut West (Washington, D.C. West End) Metro stops. The bus provides an excellent view of the 50+ embassies located along '''Embassy Row'''. It's also a good way to go from Dupont Circle to the hard-to-reach National Cathedral, as well as to American University. *'''U St-Garfield Line''' (90, 92, 93) — runs a great cross-town route from the Zoo at Woodley Park through Adams Morgan 18th St, U St, Gallaudet University, and then on to Eastern Market. *'''Pennsylvania Avenue Line''' (31, 32, 36) - another good cross-town route along Pennsylvania Avenue through Capitol Hill, downtown, Georgetown, and neighborhoods along Wisconsin Avenue. These buses run around the clock and will take you to areas not serviced by Metrorail such as Georgetown, Glover Park, and the National Cathedral. By taxi D.C. seems to be one of the last bastions of a competitive taxi market; there are plenty of small cab companies to choose from. However, the quality of the vehicles and driving is often poor. Roof lights on all D.C. cabs have LED text that explicitly state whether the cab is available for hire, on call, or off duty. The D.C. government provides an alphabetical list of all licensed taxi companies. The largest operators in the city are D.C. Yellow Cab, ☎ +1 202 544-1212 (+1 202 TAXICAB), and American Cab Association, ☎ +1 202 398-0529. The largest companies in suburban Maryland are Barwood, ☎ +1 301 984-1900, in Montgomery County (Montgomery County (Maryland)) and Silver Cab, ☎ +1 301 277-6000 in Prince George's County. In Virginia, Red Top, ☎ +1 703 522-3333, services both Arlington (Arlington (Virginia)) County and Alexandria (Alexandria (Virginia)) City. Mobile-phone based car services such as Uber and Lyft also service the DC area. Taxicab drivers are required to take passengers anywhere within the Washington Metropolitan Area, although some grumble about going out to Maryland and Virginia. D.C. cab fares for interstate trips are the same as the standard rates. Please note that with the exception of rides to and from the airport, it is illegal for non-D.C. cabs to pick up passengers within the District; the same rule applies for D.C. cabs in Maryland and Virginia. Taxi fares All D.C. cabs are required to accept credit cards and provide receipts on request. Taxi rates for DC-based taxicabs are fixed by the DC Taxicab Commission, currently $3.50 for the first eighth of a mile and 27¢ for each additional eighth of a mile. There is a $1.00 surcharge for additional passengers, regardless of the number of people. There is no rush hour fee, although meters do charge 42¢ for each minute the car is stopped in traffic or traveling under 10 mph. By car '''Driving in D.C. is difficult'''. Even most Washingtonians avoid driving downtown or during the long rush hours. Headaches of driving in D.C. include limited and expensive parking, ruthless enforcement of complicated parking rules, sadistic traffic circles, fines from automated red light cameras and absurd speed traps, a pothole epidemic, frequent street direction changes, some of the worst congestion in the country, street closures without warning—take the Metro. D.C. is routinely ranked as one of the top 10 congested cities in the country. A report from Allstate Insurance reveals that you are statistically more likely to get into an accident in D.C. than any other city in the U.S. And the grid is deceptively tortuous. Washingtonians will proudly tell you that the plan was intended to ''confuse invading armies'' (though it's actually a myth). For a fun challenge, try to drive on Massachusetts Ave from Wisconsin Ave to RFK Stadium—it's like riding a bucking bronco! If for whatever reason you ignore all the above advice and do choose to drive in Washington, here are a few tips: Street parking downtown is limited to two hours only (even at meters), so be prepared to park in a private lot or garage, which cost anywhere from $10–25 per day. Avoid driving and parking during rush hour (weekdays, 7AM-10AM and 4PM-7PM), since this is when the majority of the city's traffic congestion, street direction changes, and parking restrictions are in effect. If you do park on the street, pay close attention to traffic signs. Most streets downtown restrict parking during rush hour and visitors often return to the spot where they parked only to find that their vehicle has been ticketed or ''towed''! Local opposition prevented the construction of interstate highways through Washington, steering resources towards building the Washington Metro system instead. The two freeways that feed into the city from Virginia, I-66 and I-395, both terminate quickly. Washington and its innermost suburbs are encircled by the Capital Beltway, I-495, which gave rise to the expression "Inside the Beltway." Washington has several classic drives: * Pennsylvania Ave from Fourteenth St NW toward the Capitol. * Eastbound Independence Ave from the Lincoln Memorial, from the right lane of which you can continue in a loop around the Tidal Basin. * Rock Creek Pkwy, one of the world's earliest highways, and which was planned as part of an inner beltway, follows Rock Creek through D.C.'s own central park, then traces the Potomac River to the Lincoln Memorial. This roadway becomes '''''one-way''''' (and terribly confusing) during weekday rush hour (6:45AM–9:30AM southbound only, 3:45PM–6:30PM northbound). * Canal Road heading west from Georgetown's M St, which turns into the leafy Clara Barton Pkwy alongside the C&O Canal, continuing to the Capital Beltway. * Embassy Row, Massachusetts Ave between Scott Circle and Wisconsin Ave. * George Washington Memorial Pkwy, which follows the Potomac on the Virginia side of the river to Mount Vernon (Mount Vernon (Virginia)). By bicycle Cycling is an excellent and popular form of transportation among D.C. residents. A study by bikeleague.org showed that bicycle commuting in Washington DC was up 315% between 1990 and 2011 and that D.C. was one of the top cities for bike commuting in the country. Many streets, including the iconic Pennsylvania Avenue, have dedicated bike lanes and there is plenty of bike parking available. Bicycling is also a great way for tourists to explore D.C.'s neighborhoods, as bikes allow tourists to cover more ground, can be less exhausting than walking, and are more pleasant and cheaper than metro or taxi rides. Bike Rental * '''Capital Bikeshare''' runs a bike sharing network that has over 1,800 bicycles available at over 200 bike stations throughout the city. This is the second-largest bike sharing network in the country, after that of New York City. Users can take a bike from and station and return it to a different station. Membership fees are $7 day or $15 for 3 days, payable by using a credit card at the automated kiosks attached to every Capital Bikeshare station. On top of membership fees, usage fees vary, but the first 30 minutes are free. This is intentional to encourage people to use the system for short place-to-place trips; however, you can dock your bike into a station, wait 2 minutes, and then take the bike out again to restart the timer. * '''BikeStation''' allows visitors to rent bikes, have their bikes repaired, or arrange for temporary storage in a controlled environment at Union Station. Cycling information can be obtained here as well. * '''Bike Shops''' are plentiful and may be a better option if you plan on using a bike for an extended period. Tips for Bicycling in Washington, D.C. * To the uninitiated cyclist, traveling by bike on some of D.C.'s streets may be downright harrowing. Locals all have horror stories of cycling through quiet, residential streets only to come across extremely-busy traffic on some of D.C.'s main commuter thoroughfares. Ride The City: DC can help you plan your routes to avoid the most dangerous areas for bicyclists. * Bicycling on the sidewalk is legal in D.C. except in the downtown Central Business District, which generally consists of the area between Massachusetts Avenue and the National Mall. However, biking in the street is perfectly legal everywhere in the city and bike lanes are available on many downtown streets. * Helmets are advised, of course, but traffic in DC is actually slow enough -- and the drivers considerate enough of cyclists -- that lacking a helmet is a poor reason not to avail yourself of this excellent way to see the city. * The downtown core, including the Mall, is largely level terrain, with more hills and steeper streets generally as one rides west and north (although many neighborhoods east of the Anacostia River are also quite hilly). Bike Trails Tourists may also take advantage of some of the Washington area's fantastic biking trails: * The immensely-popular Capital Crescent Trail is a major bike commuter trail and recreational path that connects Georgetown to Bethesda and Silver Spring, Maryland. * The Metropolitan Branch Trail, connects Union Station to Silver Spring, Maryland and is a great, safe way to view some of the beautiful historic neighborhoods in Northeast D.C. * The Chesapeake and Ohio towpath (Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park) offers a fantastic ride along a shaded trail from Georgetown (Washington, D.C. Georgetown#Do) all the way to Cumberland, Maryland. Local bike shops offer bicycle rentals to visitors wishing to spend a day riding along the canal. It's also a great way to get to see the Great Falls of the Potomac River, 15 miles up-stream from Georgetown. *The 18-mile Mount Vernon Trail offers a direct bike connection between the National Mall, downtown Washington, and Alexandria, VA. By Pedicab If you'd rather relax than pedal, there are several neighborhood-based pedicab companies that have a prominent presence at most tourist facilities. Rates are generally affordable and negotiable (although sometimes more expensive than taxis). * D.C. Pedicabs * Capitol Pedicabs * National Pedicabs See If you are sightseeing, chances are you are on the Mall (Washington, D.C. National Mall). The National Mall is a unique National Park, filled with an intense concentration of monuments, memorials, museums, and monumental government buildings instantly recognizable to people all over the world. The '''White House''', the '''US Capitol Building''', the '''Washington Monument''', the '''Lincoln Memorial and Reflecting Pool''', the '''Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial''', the '''Vietnam War Memorial''', the '''Korean War Veterans Memorial''', the '''Jefferson Memorial''', the '''National Gallery of Art''', the '''National Air and Space Museum''', the '''National Natural History Museum''', and the '''Holocaust Museum''', are just a few of the '''top national attractions''' here, all within walking distance of each other. The tourist-designated sights are just half of the attraction, though—to walk down the National Mall is to thread the halls of world power in the modern era. Here powerful politicians and their staffs fill the grand neo-classical buildings of the three branches of US Government, making decisions that reverberate in the remotest corners of the world. There are multiple '''maps''' along the Mall, especially by Metro stops, but the place is so jam-packed with things you'll want to see that you should probably take a map with you to avoid missing highlights obscured by other highlights. For a more detailed and larger map than the Wikivoyage version, print out the official National Mall map (pdf). The Mall is larger than it looks, and a walk from the Capitol Building to the Lincoln Memorial or the '''Tidal Basin''' will take a while and may wear you down a bit. Plan ahead what you want to see and concentrate your activities in one section of the Mall each day. The eastern section, home to the majority of the museums, is covered in the National Mall (Washington, D.C. National Mall) article, as are the western portion of the Mall and the Tidal Basin. Many more museums await just north of the Mall in the East End (Washington, D.C. East End), ranging from the new, flashy '''Newseum''' and '''International Spy Museum''' to the time tested '''National Portrait Gallery''', '''American Art Museum''', and the home of the Constitution at the '''National Archives'''. The White House is located in the West End (Washington, D.C. West End) along with several excellent smaller museums, and the Capitol Building is on Capitol Hill (Washington, D.C. Capitol Hill). While the Mall has more than enough sights to keep a traveler busy for a while, the city itself has plenty of big attractions for a visitor who wants to leave behind the sandy paths and flocks of tourists and pigeons of the Smithsonian. The '''National Zoo''' in Woodley Park (Washington, D.C. Upper Northwest) is one of the nation's most prestigious, and the nearby '''National Cathedral''' is an awe-inspiring mammoth. Dupont Circle (Washington, D.C. Dupont Circle) is home to much of '''Embassy Row''', an impressive stretch of some 50 foreign-owned historic and modernist mansions along Massachusetts Ave, as well as several brilliant small museums, such as the '''Phillips Collection''', the '''Textile Museum''', and the '''Woodrow Wilson House'''. Another attraction that shouldn't be missed is the '''Library of Congress''', which has some of the most beautiful architecture that can be seen in the city. The historic neighborhood of Georgetown (Washington, D.C. Georgetown) is another great sightseeing destination, full of beautiful old colonial buildings, the 200+ year-old Jesuit campus of Georgetown University, a pleasant waterfront, and the infamous Exorcist steps. By car (i.e., taxi), you can get to some of the capital's more far-flung and less-frequented attractions, like the '''National Arboretum''' in the Near Northeast (Washington, D.C. Near Northeast), or the '''Kenilworth Aquatic Gardens''' in eastern Anacostia (Washington, D.C. Anacostia). By taking the Metro red line to Brookland (Washington, D.C. Brookland-Petworth-Takoma)-CUA, you can easily visit the magnificent Catholic '''Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception''', the largest Catholic church in North America. thumb 500px The National Mall (Image:National Mall map.png) Views and Panoramas D.C.'s famous height restrictions—no taller than the width of the street the building is on plus 20 feet—have resulted in a skyscraper-less downtown, giving D.C. a distinctly muted feel for what is actually the heart of a huge metropolis. The obvious downside to this law is that it limits the supply of housing and office space, which sends the cost of living and running a business downtown soaring, sparking runaway suburban sprawl, which has helped cause terrible traffic congestion, erode the city's tax base (since suburbs are in Maryland and Virginia), and undermine the vitality of the city's downtown. On the upside, though, this means that you'll have a great view over the city if you make your way to just about any old rooftop or even a nice hill. There are several classic spots to get a look out over the city. Starting with the cheapest and easiest, the '''Old Post Office Tower''' is free and centrally located, just off the National Mall (Washington, D.C. National Mall) in the East End (Washington, D.C. East End), with a good view of the nearby federal buildings and a helpful map explaining what you're looking at,''' although it is closed until 2016 for renovations'''. Also free, the '''Kennedy Center''' rooftop terrace (in the West End (Washington, D.C. West End)) provides a nice skyline somewhat removed from the city, with the Lincoln Memorial prominent in the foreground. The '''Washington Monument''' (which reopened May 12, 2014 after being closed since August 23, 2011 due to an earthquake) is another free option on the Mall, though as a vista point its small, bunker-like ports covered with scratched plastic make it less inspiring than might be expected. If you have some money, the '''Newseum''' (East End (Washington, D.C. East End)) is a good place to see a remarkable museum and get a close up view of downtown. Finally, the '''W Hotel''' (West End), just a block from the White House, has a rooftop terrace, bar, and lounge. While the bar and lounge are expensive, a single cocktail gets a table for several people long enough to take in the view, and suave cheapskates can simply wander around long enough to get a load of the White House from above (close enough to make out the Secret Service overwatch) before heading back to the elevator. Do Parks thumb 200px Rock Creek Park map (Image:Rock Creek Park map.jpg) The District is home to many large parks that offer hiking and biking. Many of the downtown parks are crowded with soccer, football, rugby, kickball, baseball, and ultimate frisbee players. The Mall may be the most famous park, but there are several other beautiful places worth noting, like the Kenilworth Aquatic Gardens in Anacostia (Washington, D.C. Anacostia), the National Arboretum in Near Northeast (Washington, D.C. Near Northeast), Meridian Hill Park in Adams Morgan-Columbia Heights (Washington, D.C. Adams Morgan-Columbia Heights), and the C&O Canal Towpath in Georgetown (Washington, D.C. Georgetown). Rock Creek Park If you look on a map, Rock Creek Park is evidently the District's central respiratory system, bisecting the city north of the Anacostia River, and covering nearly 2,000 acres of thickly forested hills. It's a national park, full of deer (who overpopulate, due to lack of predators), squirrels, rabbits, raccoons, birds, and even a few coyotes. The paved biking running trail is one of the nation's best, and it extends all the way from the Lincoln Memorial way out into Maryland (it also connects with the Mount Vernon trail in Northern Virginia). But there are tons more paths, from the hiking trail network to bridle paths, as well as a boatload of picnic spots, a golf course, a variety of Ranger-led educational programs, and even a boat rental center on the Potomac. There are plenty of nice outdoor spaces just beyond the park itself. South of Massachusetts Ave, you can take a path west out to the beautiful Dumbarton Oaks (Washington, D.C. Georgetown) estate and gardens, and then on to enormous Archibald-Glover Park, where the trails can lead you as far south and west as the C&O Canal (Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park) and Palisades Park. Following the main Rock Creek trail along the creek itself all the way south will take you under the Whitehurst Fwy and down to the Mall (Washington, D.C. National Mall), where joggers avail themselves of the incredible path right along the Potomac beneath the monuments. Roosevelt Island '''Roosevelt Island''', ☎ +1 703 289-2500. This is another one of those gems just far enough out of the way where most tourists miss out. The Teddy Roosevelt Memorial is at the center of the island, housing a memorial to the president as well as a couple fountains and several stone obelisks inscribed with his quotes. The rest of the island is a nice natural park of woods and swamp (the swamp has a boardwalk) in the center of the Potomac, with great views of Georgetown University on the northwest side and of the Kennedy Center on the east. What could be better befitting the great outdoorsman than an island park memorial! To reach the island, walk down the stairs at the Rosslyn (Arlington (Virginia)) side of the Key Bridge—which connects Rosslyn with Georgetown (Washington, D.C. Georgetown)—then head east on the trail (the Mount Vernon Trail) to the footbridge to the island. Rosslyn has the nearest Metro stop. By car, you can access the parking lot just north of the Roosevelt Bridge from the northbound lanes of the George Washington Pkwy only. Festivals With all the government money around, D.C. is awash in free public events all throughout the year, but especially in the summer, many of them right on the Mall (Washington, D.C. National Mall). A few highlights include: *


Italy

you to help break a large bill - usually €20 or €50. Do not give him your money. The bill he is giving you is fake, but at first glance it might seem real. The best advice to avoid scams is to get away from anyone you have never seen before who starts talking to you. When taking a taxi, be sure to remember the license number written on the car door. In seconds, people have had a taxi bill increased by €10 or even more. When giving money to taxi drivers, be careful. All licensed taxi drivers in Italy until 2012 are actually ethnic Italians, so any unmarked car pretending to be a private taxi driven by a non-Italian such as an Indian or a Hispanic is very likely a scam. Racism Racially-motivated violence is rare but it does make the news a few times a year; Italians may assume a person with prominent 'foreign' features to be an immigrant and, regrettably, treat him her with some measure of contempt or condescension. Tourists can generally expect not to be insulted to their face, but unfortunately casual racism and bigotry is not absent from conversation (especially bar talk, and especially if sports games featuring non-white players are on). Sports-induced attacks (hooliganism) on foreigners are not unknown, and supporters of foreign teams playing in Italy should exercise extra care not to wear their colours openly on the day of the game, outside of the sports ground. Openly homosexual behaviour is often heavily frowned upon and some attacks have been reported in the last years. Stay healthy Italian hospitals are public and offer completely free high-standard treatment for EU travellers, although, as anywhere else, you may have to wait quite long to be treated unless you're in a serious condition. Emergency rooms are called PRONTO SOCCORSO. Emergency assistance is granted even to non-EU travelers. For non-emergency assistance, non-EU citizens are required to pay out-of-pocket, there is no convention with US health insurances (although some insurance companies might later reimburse these expenses). Italy has a four-color code of urgency, red being the most immediate (assistance is given without any delay) and white being the lowest (anyone with a red, yellow and green code will pass before you). With a white code, meaning the treatment is not urgent and does not necessitate emergency personnel, you are also required to pay for the full consultation, so do not go to the Pronto Soccorso just to check your knee after last year's fall. Water in southern Italy might come from desalination plants and sometimes may have a strange taste, due to extended droughts, but it is always perfectly safe as the state runs continuous tests. If in doubt use bottled water. Elsewhere tap water is perfectly drinkable and very well maintained. If not, a "NON POTABILE" warning is posted. Respect Italy has a reputation for being a welcoming country and Italians are friendly and courteous, as well as '''very''' used to interacting with foreigners. Italian society is also much less formal than Northern European or English-speaking ones, especially in terms of introductions (Italians will introduce people to friends only rarely and very casually, not formally, so do not always expect proper introductions) and dress code. Also, don't expect that the average Italian will speak or even understand English, or that those who do will speak English in your presence: they will revert to Italian almost immediately. Once a foreigner has mastered the language sufficiently, though, he she will be required to start using polite forms of speech when addressing older folk, people who are not in their circle of friends, and any office store clerk they come in contact with. In fact, using familiar verb and pronoun forms is rather rare except among friends, family, and sometimes peers. The Italian polite form of speech form uses the third singular person instead of the second person singular: "Lei" (also the word for "she", but used for both male and female as a formal way of saying "you") instead of "tu" (you familiar ). Italians greet family and close friends with two light kisses on the cheek. Males do, too. To avoid ending up kissing on the lips note that you first move to the right (kiss the other person on their left cheek) and then to the left. Other than that, the hand-shaking rules are the same as anywhere else in the western world. Italians today are no longer the skirt-chasing Romeos described in 1950s movies. So do not expect special treatment for women such as chair-pulling or car door-opening as they will not do that, let alone help you with luggage. Any other topic is more or less the same as in other Western countries with no special care to be taken or any special do's or don't's. Clothing Whole essays can be written about the Italians' relationships with clothes. Three of the most important observations: # Most Italians (especially young ones from the upper and upper-middle social class) are very appearance-conscious; don't be surprised or insulted if you are looked at askance for your 'eccentricity' in not wearing the latest customised jeans or boots. # It's important not to judge people in return by their choice of clothing. Styles do not necessarily carry the same connotations in Italy that they would in Britain or some other countries. A woman in stilettos, miniskirt and full makeup at eight in the morning is probably just going to work in a bank. Almost all youths lounge about in skin-tight tee-shirts and casually knotted knitwear (and are very perplexed by the response they get when they take their sense of style and grooming to a less 'sophisticated' climate). # Sometimes, clothing rules are written. To visit a church or religious site you will need to cover yourself up; no bare backs, chests, shoulders and sometimes no knees, either. Sometimes museums and other attractions can also be strict; no bathing costumes, for example. If you want to visit a church or religious site it's a good idea to take something to cover yourself up with; for example a jumper or large scarf. Some churches supply cover-ups, such as sarongs are loaned to men with shorts so that they can modestly conceal their legs. Even where there are no written rules, it's worth noting that bare chests and large expanses of sunburnt skin are unacceptable away from beaches or sunbathing areas, whatever the temperature is. It is considered impolite for a man to wear a hat in a Catholic church. Politics In the recent past, politics became polarized between those who supported prime minister Berlusconi and those who opposed him. After his government fell in 2011, this has slowly faded. Still, if you bring in the argument, be prepared for a heated debate. More recently, trust in the political system itself is fading, reflecting in a sharp drop in electoral turnout (which was traditionally high); expect most Italians to talk about politics with hopelessness, when not with anger. Italians are usually modest about their country's role in the world. It should be easy to talk to people about history and politics without provoking arguments. People will listen to your opinion in a polite way as long as you express yourself politely. Fascism is out of the mainstream of Italian politics and sometimes seen as a blight, due to the dictatorship period (known as ''ventennio fascista''). You'd best avoid such topics. Some older people who lived under Benito Mussolini (the Fascist dictator who was killed by the Resistance) could easily get upset, either because they lost someone to - or fought against - the fascist regime, or because they served in it. There are also some young people who support fascist views and usually such people do not like to talk about them, so simply avoid the topic. April 25 in Italy is the "Liberation Day", the national celebration of freedom from Nazi-Fascist rule. On the other hand, communism does not carry the same violent significance for most Italians, though attitudes towards it vary; this is not unlike the situation in Germany, where Nazism is taboo but the communist regime in the East is not. Also, Italy had the largest communist party in the western world (though it had broken with the USSR over the 1968 invasion of Czchoslovakia and by the 80's, began abandoning Marxism altogether); the traditional communist strongholds were the regions of Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany, where many (especially, but by no means exclusively, the elders) still remember the Party with fondness. Similarly, in the South, the Mafia could be a sensitive topic, so it is probably wise not to talk about it. GLBT rights in Italy Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) persons in Italy may face legal challenges not experienced by non-GLBT residents. Both male and female same-sex sexual activity is legal in Italy, but same-sex couples and households headed by same-sex couples are not eligible for the same legal protections available to opposite-sex couples. Italian opinions have changed and people are now more supportive of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender (GLBT) rights, but tend to be more repressive than other European nations. Tolerance of others is part of the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church, which, at the same time, preaches against homosexuality. Nevertheless, there is a significant liberal tradition, particularly in the North and in Rome. Conservative Italian politicians such as former Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi have expressed opposition to increasing gay rights. A Eurobarometer survey published in December 2006 showed that 31% of Italians surveyed support same-sex marriage and 24% recognise same-sex couple's right to adopt (EU-wide average 44% and 33%). A 2007 poll found 45% support, 47% opposition and 8% unsure on the question of support for a civil partnership law for gays. While more information can be found on LGBT-specific websites, a brief summary of the situation is as follows: while violence is uncommon against openly gay people, most Italians are still disturbed by public displays of affection from same-sex couples and stares are almost guaranteed; most same-sex couples prefer to avoid public attention. As is the case elsewhere, the younger generations tend to be more open minded than older folks, but assumptions should not be made in either direction. Connect Internet access WiFi By law all public-access internet points must keep records of web sites viewed by customers, and even the customer's ID: expect to be refused access if you don't provide identification. Hotels providing Internet access are not required to record IDs if the connection is provided in the guest's room, although if the connection is offered in the main public hall then IDs are required. Publicly available '''wireless access''' without user identification is illegal, so open Wi-Fi hotspots (like the ones you might expect to find in a mall or cafée) all have some form of (generally one-time) registration. Certain internet activities are illegal. Beside the obvious (child pornography, trading in illegal products like drugs and weapons), copyright infringement is technically illegal even if no profit is made. However enforcement of copyright laws against P2P users is lax and cease&desist letters from providers are unheard of, ''unless'' using a University's WiFi. Certain websites (mostly related to online gambling and copyrighted material) have been blocked in Italy following court rulings. Mobile The mobile phone market developed in Italy long before than in the U.S. or other countries (as early as 1993), so reception is guaranteed in the whole of the country, including far off the coast, the tallest mountains, and the smallest villages. 3G or HDSPA internet connectivity is available from all major Italian carriers. Beware though that internet plans are generally much more expensive than in other European countries. Also, contracts often contain little-publicized usage limitations, e.g. a plan that is advertised as 3 GB per month but actually has a daily limit of 100 MB. Retailers will often fail to mention these limitations and quite often are themselves ignorant that they exist, so it is advisable to double check on the carrier's website. Also keep in mind that, generally speaking, internet plans only include connectivity when under a specific carrier's coverage. When roaming, internet costs can be very high. Coverage of major carriers is widespread, but it would be wise to check whether your carrier covers your area. Telephone Both the fixed and mobile phone systems are available throughout Italy. Telephone numbers of the fixed system used to have separate prefixes (area codes) and a local number. In the 1990s the numbers were unified and nowadays, when calling Italian phones you must '''always dial the full number'''. For example you start numbers for Rome with 06 even if you are calling from Rome. All land line numbers start with 0. Mobile numbers start with 3. Numbers starting with 89 are high-fee services. If you don't know somebody's phone number you can dial a variety of recently established phone services, the most used being 1240, 892424, 892892, but most of them have high fees. To call abroad from Italy you have to dial '''00''' + ''country code'' + ''local part'' where the syntax of the ''local part'' depends on the country called. To call Italy from abroad you have to dial ''international prefix'' + '''39''' + ''local part'' . Note that, unlike calls to most countries, you should ''not'' skip the starting zero of the local part if you are calling an Italian land line. In case of emergency call the appropriate number from the list below. Such calls are usually free and calls to 112, 113, 115, 118 can be made from payphones for free without the need of inserting coins. 112 (standard emergency number in GSM specification) can be dialed in any case for free from any mobile phone (even if your credit is empty or if you are in an area covered by a different operator) * ''112'' Carabinieri emergency number - general emergency * ''113'' Police emergency number - general emergency * ''114'' Blue Phone emergency number - children-related emergency (especially various forms of violence) * ''115'' Fire Brigade emergency number * ''117'' Guardia di Finanza - for customs, commercial and tax issues * ''118'' Health emergency number - use this if you need an ambulance, otherwise ask for the local Guardia Medica number and they'll send you a doctor. * ''1515'' State Forestry Department * ''1518'' Traffic Information * ''1530'' Coast Guard * ''803116'' A.C.I. (Italian Automobile Club)This provides assistance if your car breaks down (if you have a rented car then call the number they provide), This is a service provided to subscribers to ACI or to other Automobile Clubs associated to ARC Europe. If you're not associated to any of them you'll be asked to pay a fee (approx. €80). Always carry with you a note about the address and the number of your embassy. If you are in an emergency and do not know who to call dial 112 or 113 (out of major towns, better to call '''113''' for English-speaking operators). Payphones in Italy are no longer available, cellphones have put them long out of business, and you will only find a few remaining in train stations and airports. Additionally, some of those payphones work with coins only, some with phone cards only and just a very few with both coins and phone cards. Only a limited number of payphones (in main airports) directly accept credit cards. Many companies are shifting their customer service numbers to fixed-rate number (prefix 199). These numbers are at the local rate, no matter where are you calling from. According to national regulations, hotels cannot apply a surcharge on calls made from hotels (as the switchboard service should be already included as a service paid in the room cost) but, to be sure, check it before you use. Calls between landlines are charged at either the local rate or the national rate depending on the originating and destination area codes; if both are the same then the call will be local rate. Note that local calls are not free. Mobile Italians use mobile phones extensively, some might say excessively. The main networks are TIM (Telecom Italia Mobile, part of Telecom Italia, formerly state controlled), Vodafone, Wind, and 3 (only UMTS cellphones). Best advice is to buy a prepaid SIM card (from €10 upwards) and a cheap mobile phone (€19 upwards) to put it in (if you don't have a cellphone already that you can use). It will be much more practical. Cellphones from Korea, Japan and North America will not work in Italy unless they are Tri-band. Nearly all of Italy has GSM, GPRS and UMTS HDSPA coverage. You need to provide a valid form of identification, such as a passport or other official identity, to be able to purchase a SIM card. Unless you already have one, you will also be required to obtain a ''Codice Fiscale'' (a tax number) - or the vendor may generate one for you from your form of identification. Subscription-based mobile telephony accounts are subject to a government tax, to which ''prepaid'' SIM cards are not subject. Sometimes hotels have mobile phones for customer to borrow or rent. Call costs vary greatly depending on when, where, from and where to. Each provider offers an array of complex tariffs and it is near impossible to make reliable cost estimates. The cost of calls differs considerably if you call a fixed-line phone or a mobile phone. Usually there is a difference in cost even for incoming calls from abroad. If you can choose, calling the other party's land line could be even 40% cheaper than mobile. Post If at all possible wait until you leave Italy before posting postcards, greetings cards and other items to friends and family back home. The Italian post is notorious for being slow, expensive and unreliable. In border towns and cities near the borders with France, Switzerland, Austria and Switzerland it may be best to cross the border to post - postcards from Slovenia to Britain can take just 2 days compared with over a week when posted across the border in Trieste, Italy. Postboxes are red and can be found very easily. Post Offices can be found in every town and most villages - look for the ''PT'' symbol. When entering the post office you will usually have to take a ticket and wait for your number to appear on the screen when it's your turn. There will be different tickets for different services but for posting a parcel look for the yellow symbol with the icon of an envelope. Most post offices close at around 1pm or 2pm and only a central post office in most towns will re-open in the late afternoon. Commons:Category:Italy WikiPedia:Italy Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy


Australia

short songs, one of which (the 36th track) is even named "Fingertips." * The Dial-A-Song number is misprinted, and the phone number written leads to a warehouse. The band alerts this to the audiences during live performances in the ers. In 2007, he made a cameo appearance in the Australian soap opera, ''Neighbours'', in scenes filmed in London with Natalie Bassingthwaighte. Imported programming Owing to South Africa's apartheid policies, the British Actors' Equity Association started a boycott of programme sales to South Africa. This, combined with a similar boycott by Australia, meant that South African TV was dominated by programming from the United States, and it was only after the end of apartheid that the boycott was lifted and non-US programming became much more widely available. * In Canada, the CBC (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation) aired ''The Sandbaggers'' nationwide in the 1980s. * In Australia, the Nine Network aired ''The Sandbaggers'' nationwide in 1982. * In the United States, there was never a nationwide broadcast, but ''The Sandbaggers'' was sold in syndication (Television syndication) to individual PBS stations from the mid-1980s until the mid-1990s. The '''Lesser Crested Tern''' (''Thalasseus bengalensis'', syn. ''Sterna bengalensis'' - see Bridge ''et al.'', 2005) is a seabird of the tern family Sternidae. It breeds in subtropical coastal parts of the world mainly from the Red Sea across the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific, and Australia, with a significant population on the southern coast of the Mediterranean on two islands off the Libyan coast. Accidental breeding has also been reported in Italy and France. The Australian birds are probably sedentary, but other populations are migratory (bird migration), wintering south to South Africa. * ''T. b. bengalensis'': northern Indian Ocean, wintering to South Africa. Medium-dark grey above; slightly smaller. * ''T. b. torresii'': Indonesia south to Queensland, Australia, wintering in the same area (birds breeding in the Persian Gulf are also often given as this race). Dark grey above; slightly larger. Romuva primarily exists in Lithuania but there are also congregations of adherents in Australia, Canada, the United States, Dundzila and Strmiska (2005), p. 278. and England. Saulėgrįža Londono Romuvoje Londono Romuva kviečia Rasos šventė Londone There are also Romuvans in Norway, for whom a formal congregation is being organized. Baltų  Krivule Kurtuvėnuose 2011.06. 5. Believers of Baltic pagan faiths also exist in other nations, including Dievturība in Latvia. Dundzila (2007), p. 294. Practising the Romuva faith is seen by many adherents as a form of cultural pride, along with celebrating traditional forms of art, retelling Baltic folklore, practising traditional holidays, playing traditional Baltic music, singing traditional ''daina (Daina (Lithuania))s'' or hymns and songs as well as ecological activism and stewarding sacred places. Dundzila and Strmiska (2005), p. 244. A number of countries do not have national identity cards. These include Australia, Canada, Denmark, Ireland (Republic of Ireland), India (see below), Japan, New Zealand, Norway, the United Kingdom and the United States. The show was aired in Australia by Network Ten in May 2004, in Poland by TVN (TVN (Poland)) in January 2005, and in Argentina in 2005 on America TV. The show was picked up by Fox Reality for airing in the United States in April 2006, and was aired in October 2007. Rocchio, Christopher (25 July 2007). Fox Reality to debut UK's 'There's Something About Miriam' 31 October ''Reality TV World'' Wilkes, Neil (3 April 2006). Fox Reality picks up 'Miriam', 'Dragon's Den.' ''Digital Spy'' * Australia: The Australian Football League (Australian rules football), the National Rugby League (rugby league), and A-League (association football) all include salary cap provisions. thumb left Carnotite from the Happy Jack Mine, Utah (Image:Carnotite-BYU.jpg) Carnotite is a bright to greenish yellow mineral that occurs typically as crusts and flakes in sandstones. Amounts as low as one percent will color the sandstone a bright yellow. The high uranium content makes carnotite an important uranium ore and also radioactive. It is a secondary vanadium and uranium mineral usually found in sedimentary rocks in arid climates. It is an important ore of uranium in the Colorado Plateau region of the United States where it occurs as disseminations in sandstone and concentrations around petrified logs. Occurs in the U.S. states of Wyoming; Colorado; Arizona; Utah. It also occurs incidentally in Grants, New Mexico and Carbon County, Pennsylvania. It is also reported in Zaire; Morocco; Radium Hill, Australia; and Kazakhstan. First and second patrols ''Cod'' arrived in Brisbane, Australia, on 2 October 1943 to prepare for her first war patrol. She sailed from there 20 days later. Penetrating the South China Sea, she contacted few targets, and launched an attack only once, on 29 November, with unobserved results. Returning to Fremantle (Fremantle, Western Australia), Western Australia, to refit from 16 December 1943 to 11 January 1944, ''Cod'' put to sea for her second war patrol in the South China Sea, off Java (Java (island)), and off Halmahera. On 16 February, she surfaced to sink a sampan by gunfire, and on 23 February, torpedoed a Japanese merchantman (cargo ship). She sent another to the bottom on 27 February and two days later attacked a third, only to be forced deep by a concentrated depth charging (depth charge) delivered by an alert escort ship. Since the European Axis Powers had surrendered three months earlier (V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day)), ''V-J Day'' would be the official end of World War II. In Australia and most other allied nations, the name ''V-P Day'' was used from the outset. The ''Canberra Times'' of August 14, 1945, refers to VP Day celebrations, and a public holiday for VP Day was gazetted by the government in that year according to the Australian War Memorial. Canberra Times, Australian War Memorial Amateur radio Amateur radio operators in Australia hold the "Remembrance Day Contest" on the weekend nearest VP Day, August 15, remembering amateur radio operators who died during World War II and to encourage friendly participation and help improve the operating skills of participants. The contest runs for 24 hours, from 0800UTC on the Saturday, preceded by a broadcast including a speech by a dignitary or notable Australian (such as the Prime Minister of Australia, Governor-General of Australia, or a military leader) and the reading of the names of amateur radio operators who are known to have died. It is organized by the Wireless Institute of Australia, with operators in each Australian state contacting operators in other states, New Zealand, and Papua New Guinea. A trophy is awarded to the state that can boast the greatest rate of participation, based on a formula including: number of operators, number of contacts made, and radio frequency bands used. Commons:Category:Australia Wikipedia:Australia Dmoz:Regional Oceania Australia


United States

, appearing not only on the "Dial-A-Song" greatest hits compilation, but also as a must-play in their live setlists. A possible inspiration for "Fingertips" is The Residents' ''Commercial Album'', an album-long series of very short songs, one of which (the 36th track) is even named "Fingertips." * The Dial-A-Song number is misprinted, and the phone number written leads to a warehouse. The band alerts this to the audiences during live performances in the ers


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