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Nag Hammadi

; ref Scholarship on Gnosticism has been greatly advanced by the discovery and translation of the Nag Hammadi texts, which shed light on some of the more puzzling comments by Plotinus and Porphyry (Porphyry (philosopher)) regarding the Gnostics. More importantly, the texts help to distinguish different kinds of early Gnostics. It now seems clear that "Sethian" and "Valentinian (Valentinus (Gnostic))" This is what the scholar A. H. Armstrong wrote as a footnote in his translation of Plotinus' Enneads in the tract named against the Gnostics. Footnote from Page 264 1. From this point to the end of ch.12 Plotinus is attacking a Gnostic myth known to us best at present in the form it took in the system of Valentinus. The Mother, Sophia-Achamoth, produced as a result of the complicated sequence of events which followed the fall of the higher Sophia, and her offspring the Demiurge, the inferier and ignorant maker of the material universe, are Valentinian figures: cp. Irenaeus, ''Adversus haereses (On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis)'' 1.4 and 5. Valentinius had been in Rome, and there is nothing improbable in the presence of Valentinians there in the time of Plotinus. But the evidence in the Life ch.16 suggests that the Gnostics in Plotinus's circle belonged rather to the other group called Sethians on Archonties, related to the Ophites or Barbelognostics: they probably called themselves simply "Gnostics." Gnostic sects borrowed freely from each other, and it is likely that Valentinius took some of his ideas about Sophia from older Gnostic sources, and that his ideas in turn influenced other Gnostics. The probably Sethian Gnostic library discovered at Nag Hammadi included Valentinian treatise: ep. Puech, Le pp. 162-163 and 179-180. gnostics attempted "an effort towards conciliation, even affiliation" with late antique philosophy Schenke, Hans Martin. "The Phenomenon and Significance of Gnostic Sethianism" in The Rediscovery of Gnosticism. E. J. Brill 1978 , and were rebuffed by some Neoplatonists (Neoplatonism), including Plotinus. Plotinus considered his opponents "heretics" Introductory Note This treatise (No.33 in Porphyry's chronological order) is in fact the concluding section of a single long treatise which Porphyry, in order to carry out the design of grouping his master's works, more or less according to subject, into six sets of nine treatise, hacked roughly into four parts which he put into different Enneads, the other three being III. 8 (30) V. 8 (31) and V .5 (32). Porphyry says (Life ch. 16.11) that he gave the treatise the Title "Against the Gnostics" (he is presumably also responsible for the titles of the other sections of the cut-up treatise). There is an alternative title in Life. ch. 24 56-57 which runs "Against those who say that the maker of the universe is evil and the universe is evil. The treatise as it stands in the Enneads is a most powerful protest on behalf of Hellenic philosophy against the '''un-Hellenic heresy''' (as it was from the Platonist as well as the orthodox Christian point of view) of Gnosticism. A.H. Armstrong introduction to II 9. Against the Gnostics Pages 220-222 ,"imbeciles" and "blasphemers" They claimed to be a privileged caste of beings, in whom alone God was interested, and who were saved not by their own efforts but by some dramatic and arbitrary divine proceeding; and this, Plotinus claimed, led to immorality. Worst of all, they despised and hated the material universe and denied its goodness and the goodness of its maker . For a Platonist, is utter blasphemy -- and all the worse because it obviously derives to some extent from the sharply other-worldly side of Plato's own teaching (e.g. in the Phaedo). At this point in his attack Plotinus comes very close in some ways to the orthodox Christian opponents of Gnosticism, who also insist that this world is the work of God in his goodness. But, here as on the question of salvation, the doctrine which Plotinus is defending is as sharply opposed on other ways to orthodox Christianity as to Gnosticism: for he maintains not only the goodness of the material universe but also its eternity and its divinity. A.H. Armstrong introduction to II 9. Against the Gnostics Pages 220-222 erroneously arriving at misotheism as the solution to the problem of evil, taking all their truths over from Plato. The teaching of the Gnostics seems to him untraditional, irrational and immoral. They despise and revile the ancient Platonic teachings and claim to have a new and superior wisdom of their own: but in fact anything that is true in their teaching comes from Plato, and all they have done themselves is to add senseless complications and pervert the true traditional doctrine into a melodramatic, superstitious fantasy designed to feed their own delusions of grandeur. They reject the only true way of salvation through wisdom and virtue, the slow patient study of truth and pursuit of perfection by men who respect the wisdom of the ancients and know their place in the universe. A.H. Armstrong introduction to II 9. Against the Gnostics Pages 220-222 This state of affairs continued through to modern times; in 1945, however, there was a chance discovery of a cache of 4th-century Gnostic manuscripts near Nag Hammadi, Egypt. The texts, which had been sealed inside earthen jars, were discovered by a local man called Mohammed Ali, and now this collection of texts is known as the ''Nag Hammadi library''; this allowed for the modern study of undiluted 'Gnostic scripture' for the first time. The translation of the texts from Coptic (Coptic language), their language of composition, into English and other modern languages took place in the years approaching 1977, when the full Nag Hammadi library was published in English translation. This has clarified recent discussions of gnosticism, though many would agree that the topic still remains fraught with difficulties. The Nag Hammadi library is a collection of early Christian (Early Christianity) Gnostic texts discovered near the Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi in 1945. The writings in these codices comprised fifty-two mostly Gnostic tractates (treatise); they also include three works belonging to the ''Corpus Hermeticum (Hermetica)'' and a partial translation of Plato's ''Republic'' (Plato's Republic). The codices are currently housed in the Coptic Museum in Cairo.


Montenegro

of these regions' (Zahumlje, Duklja) medieval history doesn't give a unanimous answer: there are traits of culture, history and socio-economic ties that «point» both to the Croat and to the Serb side, not placing the regions into either fold permanently. «Ethnic» or «political» borders on the pics are purely fictitious- as are their sources, as well as interpretations based upon them. One could juggle with maps indefinitely- for instance, one could go to http: www.euratlas.com :


Bosnia and Herzegovina

is completely irrelevant since the historical evidence and analysis of these regions' (Zahumlje, Duklja) medieval history doesn't give a unanimous answer: there are traits of culture, history and socio-economic ties that «point» both to the Croat and to the Serb side, not placing the regions into either fold permanently. «Ethnic» or «political» borders on the pics are purely fictitious- as are their sources, as well as interpretations based upon them. One could juggle with maps indefinitely


Croatia

of these regions' (Zahumlje, Duklja) medieval history doesn't give a unanimous answer: there are traits of culture, history and socio-economic ties that «point» both to the Croat and to the Serb side, not placing the regions into either fold permanently. «Ethnic» or «political» borders on the pics are purely fictitious- as are their sources, as well as interpretations based upon them. One could juggle with maps indefinitely- for instance, one could go to http: www.euratlas.com


Soviet Union

associated with the concept of 'post-revisionism,' the idea of moving past the revisionist and orthodox interpretations of the origins of the Cold War to embrace what were (in the 1970s) interpretations based upon the then-growing availability of government documents from the United States, Great Britain and other western government archives. In politics, a '''red flag''' is a symbol of Socialism, or Communism, or sometimes left-wing politics in general. It has been associated with left-wing politics since the French Revolution. Brink, Jan ten ''Robespierre and the Red Terror'', 1899. Socialists adopted the symbol during the Revolutions of 1848 and it became a symbol of communism as a result of its use by the Paris Commune of 1871. "Story of the Red Flag", ''Revolution (Revolutionary Communist Party, USA)'', 05-19-2006. Retrieved 12-02-2007. The flags of several communist states, including China (flag of the People's Republic of China), Vietnam (Flag of Vietnam) and the Soviet Union, are explicitly based on the original red flag. The red flag is also used as a symbol by some democratic socialists (democratic socialism) and social democrats (social democracy), for example the Avami National Party (Awami National Party) (Pakistan), French Socialist Party (Socialist Party of France ) and the Social Democratic Party of Germany. The Labour Party (Labour Party (UK)) in Britain (United Kingdom) used it until the late 1980s. It was the inspiration for the socialist anthem, ''The Red Flag (The Red Flag (song))''. After Hitler (Adolf Hitler) took Germany out of the League of Nations, Mussolini and Hitler formed the Rome-Berlin axis, under a treaty known as the Pact of Steel. Later, Japan would also join as an Axis power under the rule of Hideki Tojo. Japan and Germany had already signed the Anti-Comintern Pact in 1939, to counter the Soviet Union's communism "threat". Other smaller powers also later joined the Axis through pacts. thumb upright Adolf Hitler (File:Hitlermusso2 edit.jpg) and Benito Mussolini in Italy Germany (Nazi Germany) and the Soviet Union were sworn enemies, but following the Munich Agreement, which effectively handed over Czechoslovakia (a French and Soviet ally, and the only remaining presidential democracy in Central Europe) to Germany, political realities allowed the Soviet Union to sign a non-aggression pact (the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact) including a secret clause partitioning Poland, the Baltic Republics (Baltic States) and Finland between the two spheres of interests. combatant1 '''Major Allied combatants (Allies of World War II)''' Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик


United States

José Lima (w:José Lima), a former baseball (w:baseball) pitcher for Major League Baseball (w:Major League Baseball)'s Houston Astros (w:Houston Astros), Detroit Tigers (w:Detroit Tigers), Los Angeles Dodgers (w:Los Angeles Dodgers), New York Mets (w:New York Mets), and Kansas City Royals (w:Kansas City Royals) (all in the United States (w:United States)) died suddenly at his Los Angeles home this morning of a heart attack (w:heart attack). He was 37 years old. His death was confirmed by the Los Angeles Dodgers organization and his family.


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