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Trakai

English , Spanish (Spanish language), French (French language) and Russian (Russian language). thumb left 170px Trakai Peninsula castle (Image:Trakai old castle.jpg) Trakai was an area holding great significance in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Trakai region began to decline politically and economically in the 16th century. During the wars with Russia, Trakai was continually attacked and razed. It has been rebuilt and many celebrations are held there annually once again. The city is often portrayed on Lithuanian stamps (postage stamps) because of its beauty and illustrious history. It has become an important district in Lithuania once again. The biggest city in the district is Lentvaris, not Trakai, its capital. Other settlements include Paluknys, Trakų Vokė, Dusmenys, and Rūdiškės. It borders the Vilnius city municipality in the east. The 16th-century Jewish (Judaism) theologian Isaac ben Abraham (Isaac b. Abraham of Troki), who lived in Trakai, Lithuania (Trakai), penned a work called ''Chizzuk Emunah'' (''Faith Strengthened'') that attempted to refute the ideas that Jesus was the Messiah prophesied in the Old Testament and that Christianity was the "New Covenant" of God. He systematically identified a number of inconsistencies in the New Testament, contradictions between the New Testament and the Old Testament, and Old Testament prophesies which remained unfulfilled in Jesus' lifetime. In addition, he questioned a number of Christian practices, such as Sunday Sabbath. Biography of Isaac ben Abraham of Troki Written originally for Jews to persuade them not to convert to Christianity, ''Chizzuk Emunah'', TorahLab Store the work was eventually read by Christians. While the well-known Christian Hebraist Johann Christoph Wagenseil attempted an elaborate refutation of Abraham's arguments, Wagenseil's Latin translation of it only increased interest in the work and inspired later Christian freethinkers. ''Chizzuk Emunah'' was praised as a masterpiece by Voltaire. The town was first mentioned in 1382. The first church was built in 1425, likely by Vytautas the Great. Because of its good geographical location (Neman River, direct route to Trakai), Punia became a local center. In 1503 the town received Magdeburg rights and was promoted to city status. In the 17th century the city reached its peak, and became known for its pottery and smithery. In 1688 the third church was built. At the beginning of the 18th century, Punia suffered a great deal of damage from the Swedish wars, and did not recover until the end of the century. In 1785 a town hall was built. During the middle of the 19th century Jews settled in the town, developing trade and helping the town recover from two large fires. After the second fire a new brick church replaced the old wooden church. By 1866 the number of residents had almost doubled since 1833, reaching 1,000. Punia suffered from another major fire, the World Wars, Soviet repressions and by 1939 it had only about 200 residents left. It recovered a bit only in the 1960s, when it became the administrative center of the local kolkhoz. * Cities without coat of arms image do not have it confirmed by the President of Lithuania. Municipalities share coat of arms with their capitals with the exception of cities which are capitals of more than one municipality (i.e. a city municipality and a district municipality) in which case the city municipality shares the coat of arms with the city, while the district municipality has its own distinct coat of arms. Another notable exception is Trakai town, which has different coat of arms than does its municipality (Trakai district municipality). Little is known of the fortunes of the Jews of Lithuania during the troublous times that followed the death of Gediminas and the accession of his grandson Vytautas (1341). To the latter, the Jews owed a charter of privileges which was momentous in the subsequent history of the Jews of Lithuania. The documents granting privileges first to the Jews of Brest (Brest, Belarus) (July 1, 1388) and later to those of Trakai, Grodno (1389), Lutsk, Vladimir, and other large towns are the earliest documents to recognize the Jews of Lithuania as possessing a distinct organization. '''Trakai Historical National Park''' is a national park in Lithuania. It was designated in 1992 to embrace the historic city of Trakai, some 25 kilometers west of Vilnius, and the forests, lakes, and villages in its environs. It is the only historical national park (National historic park) in Europe. History The city expanded when a railroad connecting Vilnius with Liepāja was built in 1871. During the First World War (World War I), the city was occupied by the Germans in 1915, and it became the capital of an administrative unit for the first time. In 1919 the first train departed from Kaišiadorys to Radviliškis. When Trakai and the rest of the Vilnius Region became part of Poland (Republic of Central Lithuania), Kaišiadorys became the temporary capital of the Trakai Apskritis. Military achievements As voivode of Kiev, Chodkiewicz defended the region from Tatar invasion. In 1558 he achieved a victory in Podolia against the Crimean Khanate. This victory raised prestige of Chodkiewicz as a military commander. On the onset of the Livonian War he was promoted to castellan of Trakai with intention to use his skill in the war. Kirkienė (2008), p. 187 In 1561, Grand Hetman Mikołaj "the Black" Radziwiłł, Chodkiewicz and his brother Hieronim (Hieronim Chodkiewicz) led the Lithuanian army into Livonia where they achieved victory against the Tsardom of Russia. After this campaign Chodkiewicz was promoted to Field Hetman of Lithuania. On January 20, 1564, the Lithuanians under his command killed Russian commander Shuisky and defeated the Russian army in the battle of the Ula River, which significantly improved Lithuania's standing in the war. Madariaga (2006), p. 331 He was hailed as war hero and promoted to castellan of Vilnius. Kirkienė (2008), p. 189 Royal favor continued: Hrehory's nephew Jan Hieronimowicz (Jan Hieronimowicz Chodkiewicz) received his late father's position as Elder of Samogitia in 1564, brother Yurii (Yurii Chodkiewicz), who traveled to Moscow for diplomatic negotiations, became castellan of Trakai and Hrehory was appointed Grand Hetman of Lithuania in 1566. Kirkienė (2008), pp. 191–192 Thus Hrehory Chodkiewicz became the second man after Mikołaj "the Red" Radziwiłł and the Chodkiewiczs controlled three out of five top seats in the Lithuanian Council of Lords. In 1567 Chodkiewicz achieved another victory in Livonia, this time against the Kingdom of Sweden. * Voivode of Vitebsk (1554) and Voivode of Kiev (1555–1558) Biržiška (1937), pp. 344–345 * Castellan of Trakai (1559–1564) and Vilnius (1564–1572) * Administrator of the Eldership of Samogitia (1562–1563) Kirkienė (2008), p. 188 '''Albrycht Władysław Radziwiłł''' ( Wikipedia:Trakai commons:Trakai


Russia

yrc . *Carnegie Hall in New York City thumb left 170px Trakai Peninsula castle (Image:Trakai old castle.jpg) Trakai was an area holding great significance in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Trakai region began to decline politically and economically in the 16th century. During the wars with Russia, Trakai was continually attacked and razed. It has been rebuilt and many celebrations are held there annually once again. The city is often portrayed on Lithuanian stamps (postage stamps) because of its beauty and illustrious history. It has become an important district in Lithuania once again. '''Yuri Vladimirovich Matiyasevich''', ( Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia


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