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family was starved and deprived of water and supplies, until eventually the army came in on the tenth day and killed Husayn and his companions, and enslaved the rest of the women and family, taking them to Kufa. Mohsin was born to Haji Faizullah and Zainab Khanam in Hughli (Hugli-Chinsura) (now in West Bengal, India) in 1732. He was home-schooled and gained knowledge in the study of the Quran, Hadith and the Fiqh. Later, he went on a voyage to other countries of Asia, including the regions in current-day Iran, Iraq, Turkey and the Arab peninsula. He also made the pilgrimage to Mecca, and visited Medina, Kufa, Karbala and other holy places. After performing the Hajj, he was given the title ''Haji''. There are still cities and provinces in Iraq where the Persian names of the city are still retained. e.g. ’Anbār (Anbar Province) and Baghdād. Other cities of Iraq with originally Persian names include ''Nokard'' (نوكرد) -- Haditha, ''Suristan'' (سورستان) -- Kufa, ''Shahrban'' (شهربان) -- Muqdadiyah, ''Arvandrud'' (اروندرود) -- Shatt al-Arab, and ''Asheb'' (آشب) -- Amadiya. See: محمدی ملایری، محمد: فرهنگ ایران در دوران انتقال از عصر ساسانی به عصر اسلامی، جلد دوم: دل ایرانشهر، تهران، انتشارات توس 1375.: Mohammadi Malayeri, M.: Del-e Iranshahr, vol. II, Tehran 1375 Hs. Following the Assassination of Uthman There are many unresolved issues regarding the First Fitna (literally “trial”) period of dissension and civil war, which split the Muslim community following the assassination of the Caliph Uthman. When Ali arrived in Kufa in 656 seeking support against Aishah bint Abi Bakr (Aisha) and the Basrans it is agreed that Abu Musa (then the governor of Kufa), urged his subjects not to support Ali and avoid participation in the ''fitna''. When his advice was rejected and the people of Kufa supported Ali, Abu Musa was forced to leave and Ali disposed him from his governorate. He was born in Kufa in Iraq (or Sanaa (Sana'a), according to some accounts) and was active in the administration of the Abbasid Caliphate, before he began to associate with Ismaili teachers. At first he proselytised under the guidance of Ibn Hawshab in Yemen and Mecca. date November 634 place Marauha at the Euphrates near Kufa, Iraq result Sasanian victory Sykes, Percy (Percy Sykes), ''History of Persia'', Vol.1, (Routledge and Kegan Paul:London, 1969), 493 Hudhayfah was made governor of Kufa and Ctesiphon (al-Madain). When the news of his appointment at reached Ctesiphon crowds went to meet this famous companion of whose great role in the conquests of Persia was already a legend. As they waited, a lean man approached on a donkey eating a loaf of bread. When the rider was in their midst they realized that he was Hudhayfah, the governor for whom they were waiting. They could not contain their surprise being accustomed to the pomp and the grandeur of Persian rulers. Hudhayfah saw they were expecting him to speak and he eventually said: "Beware of places of ''fitnah'' and intrigue." "And what," they asked, "are places of intrigue?" He replied: "The doors of rulers where some people go and try to make the ruler or governor believe lies and praise him for qualities he does not possess." The '''Bani Assad''' or '''Banu Assad''' (Arabic: بني أسد بنو أسد) (Arabic for "Sons of Lion") is an Arab tribe in Iraq. They are Adnanite (Adnan) Arabs, powerful and one of the most famous tribes. They are widely respected by many Arab tribes, respected by Shia Muslims because they have buried the body of Imam Husayn (Husayn ibn Ali), his family (Ahlul Bayt) and companions with the help of Imam Ali b. Husayn (Zayn al-Abidin), ''Zayn al-‘Abidin'', the son of the Imam, and many martyrs from the Battle of Karbala are from the tribe. Today, many members of the tribe live in the Iraqi cities of Basra, Najaf, Kufa, Karbala, Nasariyah, Amarah, Kut, Hilla, Diyala (Diyala Governorate), Baghdad. There are people from Banu Assad in Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Yemen, Egypt in Sinai desert who have all migrated from Iraq. There are also members of Bani Assad tribe in Khuzestan, Ahwaz in Iran located with neighboring tribes of Banu Tamim, Banu Malik, Banu Kaab and other notable Arab Tribes. The 9th century Arab geographer Ibn Khordadbih identified the location of mount Judi as being in the land of Assyria (''Al-Akrad''), and the Abbasid historian Abu al-Hasan 'Alī al-Mas'ūdī (c. 896-956) recorded that the spot where it came to rest could be seen in his time. Masudi also said that the Ark began its voyage at Kufa in central Iraq and sailed to Mecca, where it circled the Kaaba, before finally travelling to Judi. Yaqut al-Hamawi, also known as Al-Rumi, placed the mountain "above Jazirat ibn Umar, to the east of the Tigris" and mentioned a mosque built by Noah that could be seen in his day, and the traveller Ibn Battuta passed by the mountain in the 14th century. J. P. Lewis, ''Noah and the Flood: In Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Tradition'', The Biblical Archaeologist, December 1984, p.237 The rebellion which broke out in 686 CE, under the reign of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, was supported by the faction of Muslims. Al-Mukhtar led the rebellion, which was launched from Kufa, in present-day Iraq. It is known that he was rebelling on behalf of Ali's son Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, after Husayn ibn Ali was killed at the Battle of Karbala. Al-Mukhtar was in prison whilst the Battle of Karbala was taking place. After he was out of prison, he found out about what happened in Karbala and set out to avenge the death of the grand son of Muhammad. Al-Kindī was born in Kufa, a centre of world learning at the time. Al-Kindi's father was the governor of Kufa, as his grandfather had been before him. Al-Kindi was descended from the Kinda tribe which had migrated from Yemen. This tribe had united a number of tribes and reached a position of prominence in the 5th (5th century) and 6th (6th century) centuries, but then lost power from the middle of the 6th century. Al-Kindī's education took place first in Kufa, then in Basrah, and finally in Baghdad. Knowledge of his great learning soon spread, and the Caliph al-Ma'mun (Al-Mamun) appointed him to the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, which was a recently established centre for the translation of Greek (Ancient Greece) philosophical and scientific texts. (He was also well known for his beautiful calligraphy, and at one point was employed as a calligrapher by al-Mutawakkil.) According to Shi'ah Muslims, she accompanied her father when he traveled from Mecca to Kufa, now known as Iraq, "as Yazid had offered Imam to step down of Caliphate and let him get the throne, Imam did not need any worldly power, he had already been given Imamat, Wilayat and enormously huge honour by God himself. Thus Imam said, okay I will step down provided you and I go in public and there you place your argument and I will accept however I will not decide upon the stance in the closed cabinet as Imam knew that they would have announced in public that Imam has made Yazid as Caliph and has taken covenant with him . This stance of Imam caused displeasure to Yazid. Imam realised that living in Medina would result in bloodshed as it is no longer safe for them here. So he thought for Kufa where people had promised their covenant with him. He sent his cousin Muslim son of Aqeel to confirm the covenant of people and he reported the stance as positive. However eventually the scene changed, the nobles of Yazid spread tyranny over people and either threatened them to death or offered them lust for power and wealth. Imam left Medina upon invitation from people of Kufa but upon reaching midway the story was found different, they forced Imam to change his way towards Karbala. They prohibited water and supplies for them and each day increased the cruelty inorder to force him into covenant. They did not realise that the person before them is none but Husain son of Ali who cares not for life when it comes to decide upon truth and false or good and bad. This led to final battle on 10th of Mohurrum, they martyred the entire household of Imam and his companions and then captured the survivals. The survivals included Imam's sisters, wives, daughters including Sakina, family members of companions of Imam and Imam's son Imam Zainul Abeddin who was ill and could not participate in battle as a result. The first version states that Abdullah Shah Ghazi was Syed Abu Muhammad Abdullah Al Ishtar from the lineage of the Prophet Muhammad from the linage of Hasan Ibne Ali Ibne Abu Talib (Hasan ibn Ali). Official Website According to historian Suhail Zaheer Lari, he was the son of Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya. Lari, Suhail Zaheer. A History of Sindh. Oxford University Press, USA. 1995. and OUP Pakistan. 1996. He was born in Medina in 720 and arrived in Sindh in 760 as a merchant and brought with him a large number of horses purchased from Kufa, Iraq. He was given a warm welcome as he belonged to a saadat family (Sayyid), the noblest in Islam. Islam in Iraq Iraq's Muslims follow two distinct traditions, Shia and Sunni Islam. According to the ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', Iraq is 97% Muslim: 55-60% Shi'a, 40-45% Sunni. Iraq is home to many religious sites important for both Shia and Sunni Muslims. Baghdad was a hub of Islamic learning and scholarship for centuries and served as the capital of the Abassids. The city of Karbala has substantial prominence in Shia Islam as a result of the Battle of Karbala, fought on the site of the modern city on October 10, 680. Similarly, Najaf is renowned as the site of the tomb of Alī ibn Abī Tālib (Ali) (also known as "Imām Alī"), whom the Shia consider to be the righteous caliph and first imām (imam). The city is now a great center of pilgrimage from throughout the Shi'a Islamic world and it is estimated that only Mecca and Medina receive more Muslim pilgrims. The city of Kufa was home to the famed scholar, Abu Hanifah whose school of thought is followed by a sizable number of Sunni Muslims across the globe. Likewise, Samarra is also home to the al-Askari Mosque, containing the mausoleums of the Ali al-Hadi and Hasan al-Askari, the tenth and eleventh Shia Imams, respectively, as well as the shrine of Muhammad al-Mahdi, known as the "Hidden Imam", who is the twelfth and final Imam of the Shia of the Ja'farī Madhhab. This has made it an important pilgrimage centre for Ja'farī Shia Muslims. In addition, some female relatives of the Prophet Mohammad are buried in Samarra, making the city one of the most significant sites of worship for Shia and a venerated location for Sunni Muslims. Life Qarni converted to Islam during Muhammad's lifetime, though they never met in person. Yet Qarni was fully aware of Muhammads spiritual presence at all times of his life. The Uwaisi form of spiritual transmission in the vocabulary of Islamic mysticism (Sufism) was named after Uwais Qarni, as it refers to the transmission of spiritual knowledge between two individuals without the need for physical interaction between them. Not long after a meeting with Ali, Qarni left Qaran for Kufa, modern Iraq. He fought for Ali against Muawiyah I at the Battle of Siffin in 657. Attar, ''Muslim Saints and Mystics'', trans. A.J. Arberry, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1983 On the fourth anniversary of Baghdad's fall to United States forces, tens if not hundreds of thousands of Iraqis marched peacefully in protest of the continued occupation. Wearing Iraqi flags, demonstrators marched from Kufa (w:Kufa) to Najaf (w:Najaf) chanting "Get out, get out occupier!" Many were dancing through the streets as police kept an eye on the proceedings and lined the route.


;Evidencing and Explaining Democratic Congruence: The Perspective of 'Substantive' Democracy." ''World Values Research'' 1:57-90 After World War 2 he left his foster family, and went to Namibia (then South-West Africa), where he was fostered by an Afrikaans family, taking his third legal name of Jozua Joubert . She appeared on an episode of the television reality travel show ''Intrepid Journeys'' where she visited


urban designer (urban planning) with the Tokyo Metropolitan Government and a longtime friend of Prince Akishino. Upon her marriage, which took place at the Imperial Hotel, Tokyo on 15 November 2005, Princess Nori left the Imperial Family (Imperial Household of Japan), taking the surname of her husband, the first commoner of non-aristocratic background to marry an Imperial Princess. These changes in her status are demanded by a 1947 law that requires female members of the Imperial


usfkbr.htm (USGS) * Sayako, Princess Nori of Japan marries a commoner and thereby leaves the Imperial Family (Japanese Imperial Family), taking the surname of her husband. (The Age) (Reuters) http

) (USGS) * Sayako, Princess Nori of Japan marries a commoner and thereby leaves the Imperial Family (Japanese Imperial Family), taking the surname of her husband. (The Age)

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