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Al Anbar Governorate

became a strategy of choice for insurgents, the need to patrol and travel throughout the province became one of the Marine Corps’ greatest challenges. The threat of insurgent activity, when combined with the challenges that long-distance travel, choking dust, and stifling heat created, made the Anbar Province a difficult area of operation. Cities and towns *Ramadi *Fallujah *Al-Qaim (Al-Qa'im (town)) * Hīt


Singapore in Malaysia

come to be cited even years after the merger, as well as after the subsequent separation (History of Singapore#Independent Singapore (1965 - present)). The earliest predecessor of the Cabinet was the Executive Council of the Straits Settlements, introduced in 1877 to advise the Governor of the Straits Settlements (list of British Governors of the Straits Settlements). It wielded no executive power. In 1955, a Council of Ministers was created, made up of three ''ex officio'' Official Members and six Elected Members of the Legislative Assembly of Singapore, appointed by the Governor on the recommendation of the Leader of the House. Following the general elections that year, David Saul Marshall became the first Chief Minister of Singapore. Constitutional talks between Legislative Assembly representatives and the Colonial Office were held from 1956 to 1958, and Singapore gained full internal self-government in 1959. The Governor was replaced by the Yang di-Pertuan Negara, who had power to appoint to the post of Prime Minister the person most likely to command the authority of the Assembly, and other Ministers of the Cabinet on the Prime Minister's advice. In the 1959 general elections (Singaporean general election, 1959), the People's Action Party swept to power with 43 out of the 51 seats in the Assembly, and Lee Kuan Yew became the first Prime Minister of Singapore. The executive branch of the Singapore Government remained unchanged following Singapore's merger with Malaysia (Singapore in Malaysia) in 1963, and subsequent independence (history of the Republic of Singapore#Independence of Singapore) in 1965. The British High Commissioner's role became that of an ambassador following Singapore's independence from Britain and merger with Malaysia (Singapore in Malaysia) in 1963. Apart from that the executive branch of the Singapore Government remained largely unchanged, Tan, "A Short Legal and Constitutional History of Singapore", p. 46. although now it governed a state within a larger federation. However, with effect from 9 August 1965, Singapore left the Federation of Malaysia (Malaysia) and became a fully independent republic (history of the Republic of Singapore#Independence of Singapore). On separation from Malaysia, the Singapore Government retained its executive authority, and the executive authority of the Parliament of Malaysia ceased to extend to Singapore and vested in the Singapore Government. Constitution and Malaysia (Singapore Amendment) Act 1965 (No. 53 of 1965) (Malaysia), ss. 4 and 5. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the Supreme Head of State of Malaysia, also ceased to be the Supreme Head of Singapore and relinquished his sovereignty, jurisdiction, power and authority, executive or otherwise in respect of Singapore, which revested in the Yang di-Pertuan Negara of Singapore. Constitution and Malaysia (Singapore Amendment) Act 1965 (Malaysia), s. 6. The Republic of Singapore Independence Act 1965 Republic of Singapore Independence Act 1965 (No. 9 of 1965) (1985 Rev. Ed.), s. 4. then vested the executive authority of Singapore in the newly created post of President, and made it exercisable by him or by the Cabinet or by any Minister authorized by the Cabinet. . Since then, the PAP has retained power and formed the Government (Government of Singapore) through successive elections, and Singapore's merger with Malaysia (Singapore in Malaysia) in 1963 and full independence (history of the Republic of Singapore#Independence of Singapore) in 1965. In the 1968 general election (Singaporean general election, 1968), the PAP was returned unopposed in all except seven of the 58 constituencies, and won the remaining seats with 84% of the popular vote. Turnbull, pp. 309–310. Thereafter, every seat in Parliament was held by a PAP MP until Joshua Benjamin Jeyaretnam of the Workers' Party of Singapore won a 1981 by-election (Singaporean by-election, 1981) in the Anson constituency. Turnbull, p. 333. Jeyaretnam retained his seat at the following general election in 1984 (Singaporean general election, 1984), at which Chiam See Tong of the Singapore Democratic Party was also elected as representative of Potong Pasir (Potong Pasir Single Member Constituency). Turnbull, p. 335. Between 1984 and 2011, the number of elected parliamentary seats held by opposition parties fluctuated between one (after the 1988 election (Singaporean general election, 1988)) As the Non-constituency Member of Parliament (NCMP) scheme had been introduced in 1984, Lee Siew Choh of the Workers' Party became an NCMP following the 1988 general election (Singaporean general election, 1988): Turnbull, p. 340. and four (1991 election (Singaporean general election, 1991)). Turnbull, p. 351. The "S" series is no longer administered by the Malaysian Road Transport Department following Singapore's secession from Malaysia (Singapore in Malaysia) in 1965. In the years that followed, the Singaporean license number system began to change with the modification and reintroduction of its "S" prefix and inclusion of a checksum digit as a suffix, in the addition to new prefixes and colour schemes for different classes of vehicles (''See vehicle registration plates of Singapore'').


Straits Settlements

was the Executive Council of the Straits Settlements, introduced in 1877 to advise the Governor of the Straits Settlements (list of British Governors of the Straits Settlements). It wielded no executive power. In 1955, a Council of Ministers was created, made up of three ''ex officio'' Official Members and six Elected Members of the Legislative Assembly of Singapore, appointed by the Governor on the recommendation of the Leader of the House. Following the general elections that year, David Saul Marshall became the first Chief Minister of Singapore. Constitutional talks between Legislative Assembly representatives and the Colonial Office were held from 1956 to 1958, and Singapore gained full internal self-government in 1959. The Governor was replaced by the Yang di-Pertuan Negara, who had power to appoint to the post of Prime Minister the person most likely to command the authority of the Assembly, and other Ministers of the Cabinet on the Prime Minister's advice. In the 1959 general elections (Singaporean general election, 1959), the People's Action Party swept to power with 43 out of the 51 seats in the Assembly, and Lee Kuan Yew became the first Prime Minister of Singapore. The executive branch of the Singapore Government remained unchanged following Singapore's merger with Malaysia (Singapore in Malaysia) in 1963, and subsequent independence (history of the Republic of Singapore#Independence of Singapore) in 1965. History Up to the outbreak of World War II, Singapore was part of the Crown colony known as the Straits Settlements together with Malacca and Penang. The earliest predecessor of the Cabinet was arguably the Executive Council of the Straits Settlements that was introduced in 1877 by letters patent issued by the Crown, Letters patent dated 17 November 1877. though its function was very different from that of today's Cabinet. The Council, which was composed of "such persons and constituted in such manner as may be directed" by royal instructions, 1877 letters patent, Art. II. existed to advise the Governor of the Straits Settlements (list of British Governors of the Straits Settlements) and wielded no executive power. The Governor was required to consult the Executive Council on all affairs of importance unless they were too urgent to be laid before it, or if reference to it would prejudice the public service. In such urgent cases, the Governor had to inform the Council of the measures he had taken. '''British Malaya''' loosely described a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the Island of Singapore that were brought under British (United Kingdom) control between the 18th and the 20th centuries. Unlike the term "British India", which excludes the Indian princely states, British Malaya is often used to refer to the Malay States under indirect British rule as well as the Straits Settlements that were under the sovereignty of the British Crown. Before the formation of Malayan Union in 1946, the territories were not placed under a single unified administration. Instead, British Malaya comprised the Straits Settlements, the Federated Malay States and the Unfederated Malay States. '''British Malaya''' loosely described a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the Island of Singapore that were brought under British (United Kingdom) control between the 18th and the 20th centuries. Unlike the term "British India", which excludes the Indian princely states, British Malaya is often used to refer to the Malay States under indirect British rule as well as the Straits Settlements that were under the sovereignty of the British Crown. Before the formation of Malayan Union in 1946, the territories were not placed under a single unified administration. Instead, British Malaya comprised the Straits Settlements, the Federated Malay States and the Unfederated Malay States. Some Chinese convicts deported from the Straits Settlements were sent to Madras in India, the "Madras district gazetteers, Volume 1" reported an incident where the Chinese convicts escaped and killed the police sent to apprehend them: "Much of the building work was done by Chinese convicts sent to the Madras jails from the Straits Settlements (where there was no sufficient prison accommodation) and more than once these people escaped from the temporary buildings' in which they were confined at Lovedale. In 186^ seven of them tjot away and it was several days before they were apprehended by the Tahsildar, aided by Badagas sent out in all directions to search. On the 28th July in the following year twelve others broke out during a very stormy night and parties of armed police were sent out to scour the hills for them. They were at last arrested in Malabar a fortnight later. Some police weapons were found in their possession, and one of the parties of police had disappeared—an ominous coincidence. Search was made all over the country for the party, and at length, on the 15th September, their four bodies were found lying in the jungle at Walaghát , half way down the Sispára ghát path, neatly laid out in a row with their severed heads carefully placed on their shoulders. It turned out that the wily Chinamen, on being overtaken, had at first pretended to surrender and had then suddenly attacked the police and killed them with their own weapons."


Reading, Pennsylvania

'', was a Lockheed Constellation (Lockheed Super Constellation) operated by Transcontinental and Western Air (TWA) on a training flight on July 11, 1946 when it crashed near Reading (Reading, Pennsylvania), Pennsylvania. Electrical wiring in the baggage compartment arced, starting a fire. The smoke and intense fire created made it impossible for the pilots to maintain control of the aircraft. Of the six crewmembers aboard, five were killed. This accident is memorable for grounding all Lockheed


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