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Classical Athens

into the same language via the Septuagint. *'''Medieval Greek''', also known as '''Byzantine Greek''': the continuation of Koine Greek during Byzantine Greece, up to the demise of the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century. ''Medieval Greek'' is a cover phrase for a whole continuum of different speech and writing styles, ranging from vernacular continuations of spoken Koine that were already approaching Modern Greek in many respects, to highly learned forms imitating classical Attic. Much of the written Greek that was used as the official language of the Byzantine Empire was an eclectic middle-ground variety based on the tradition of written Koine. With the end of the dark age of Greece came the emergance of various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, South Italy (Magna Grecia) (known in Latin as ''Magna Graecia'', or ''Greater Greece'') and Asia Minor (Anatolia), reaching great levels of prosperity (wealth) that resulted in an unprecedented cultural boom, that of classical Greece, expressed in architecture (Architecture of ancient Greece), drama (Theatre of ancient Greece), science and philosophy (Ancient Greek philosophy), and nurtured in Athens (Classical Athens) under a democratic (Athenian democracy) environment. However, the fact that Greece was not a unified country meant that conflict between the Greek states was common. The most devastating of intra-Greek wars in classical antiquity was the Peloponnesian War, which marked the demise of the Athenian Empire as the leading power in ancient Greece. The Greeks and the Romans left a legacy in Europe which is evident in current language, thought (Western philosophy), law and minds. Ancient Greece was a collection of city-states, out of which the original form of democracy developed. Athens (Classical Athens) was the most powerful and developed city, and a cradle of learning from the time of Pericles. Citizens forums debated and legislated policy of the state, and from here arose some of the most notable classical philosophers, such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, the last of whom taught Alexander the Great. The ancient Athenian (Classical Athens) "maritime loan" advanced money for voyages with repayment being cancelled if the ship was lost. In the 4th century BC, rates for the loans differed according to safe or dangerous times of year, implying an intuitive pricing of risk with an effect similar to insurance. Franklin, J., 2001, ''The Science of Conjecture: Evidence and Probability Before Pascal'', Baltimore:Johns Hopkins University Press, 259. The Greeks (Ancient Greece) and Romans (Ancient Rome) introduced the origins of health and life insurance c. 600 BCE when they created guilds called "benevolent societies" which cared for the families (family) of deceased members, as well as paying funeral expenses of members. Guilds in the Middle Ages served a similar purpose. The Talmud deals with several aspects of insuring goods (Good (economics)). Before insurance was established in the late 17th century, "friendly societies" existed in England, in which people donated amounts of money to a general sum that could be used for emergencies. The '''Peloponnesian War,''' 431 to 404 BC, was an ancient Greek (ancient Greece) war fought by Athens (Classical Athens) and its empire (Athenian empire) against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases. In the first phase, the Archidamian War, Sparta launched repeated invasions of Attica, while Athens took advantage of its naval supremacy to raid the coast of the Peloponnese attempting to suppress signs of unrest in its empire. This period of the war was concluded in 421 BC, with the signing of the Peace of Nicias. That treaty, however, was soon undermined by renewed fighting in the Peloponnese. In 415 BC, Athens dispatched a massive expeditionary force (Sicilian expedition) to attack Syracuse (Syracuse, Italy) in Sicily; the attack failed disastrously, with the destruction of the entire force, in 413 BC. This ushered in the final phase of the war, generally referred to either as the Decelean War, or the Ionian War. In this phase, Sparta, now receiving support from Persia (Achaemenid Dynasty), supported rebellions in Athens' subject states in the Aegean Sea and Ionia, undermining Athens' empire, and, eventually, depriving the city of naval supremacy. The destruction of Athens' fleet at Aegospotami (Battle of Aegospotami) effectively ended the war, and Athens surrendered in the following year. As a historian and a thinker on education, Coubertin romanticized ancient Greece. Thus, when he began to develop his theory of physical education, he naturally looked to the example set by the Athenian (Classical Athens) idea of the gymnasium (Gymnasium (ancient Greece)), a training facility that simultaneously encouraged physical and intellectual development. He saw in these gymnasia what he called a triple unity between old and young, between disciplines, and between different types of people, meaning between those whose work was theoretical and those whose work was practical. Coubertin advocated for these concepts, this triple unity, to be incorporated into schools. Hill, p. 6 '''Sophocles''' ( , ''Ichneutai'', "trackers"), also known as the ''Searchers'', ''Trackers'' or ''Tracking Satyrs'', is a fragmentary satyr play by the fifth-century Athenian (Classical Athens) dramatist (Theatre of ancient Greece) Sophocles. Three nondescript quotations in ancient authors were all that was known of the play until 1912, Hunt (1912) 31. when the extensive remains of a second-century CE papyrus roll of the ''Ichneutae'' were published among the ''Oxyrhynchus Papyri''. With more than four hundred lines surviving in their entirety or in part, the ''Ichneutae'' is now the best preserved ancient satyr play after Euripides' ''Cyclops (Cyclops (play))'', the only fully extant example of the genre. thumb right As for me, all I know is that I know nothing. (File:Socrates Louvre.jpg) '''Socrates (w:Socrates)''' (Σωκράτης; c. 470 BC – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (w:Classical Greece) (Athenian (w:Classical Athens)) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy (w:Western philosophy). Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics (w:ethics), and it is this Platonic Socrates who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method (w:Socratic method), or ''elenchus''. The latter remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy (w:pedagogy) in which a series of questions is asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand. * '''He''' Socrates, in an earlier dialogue, the ''Crito (w:Crito)'' contended that he had been condemned by due process of law, and that it would be wrong to do anything illegal to avoid punishment. He '''first proclaimed the principle which we associate with the Sermon on the Mount (w:Sermon_on_the_Mount),''' that "we ought not retaliate evil for evil to any one, whatever evil may be suffered from him." He then imagines himself engaged in a dialogue with the laws of Athens (w:Classical Athens), in which they point out that he owes them the kind of respect that a son owes to a father or a slave to his master, but in an even higher degree; and that, moreover, every Athenian citizen is free to emigrate if he dislikes the Athenian State (w:Athenian_democracy). ** Book One, Part II, Chapter XVI, Plato's Theory of Immortality, p. 133. * '''There is every reason to believe that the later Pythagoreans exercised a strong influence on the study and development of mathematics at Athens (w:Classical Athens). The Sophists (w:Sophist) acquired geometry from Pythagorean sources. Plato bought the works of Philolaus and had a warm friend in Archytas.''' ** p. 23. The Sophist School (w:Sophism) * '''Athens (w:Classical Athens)... became the richest and most beautiful city of antiquity.''' All menial work was performed by slaves. ...The citizen of Athens was well to do and enjoyed a large amount of leisure. The government being purely democratic, every citizen was a politician. To make his influence felt among his fellow-men he must, first of all, be educated. Thus '''there arose a demand for teachers. The supply came principally from Sicily (w:Sicily#Greek_and_Roman_period), where Pythagorean doctrines had spread. These teachers were called ''Sophists'' (w:Sophist), or "wise men." Unlike the Pythagoreans, they accepted pay for their teaching. Although rhetoric was the principal feature of their instruction, they also taught geometry, astronomy, and philosophy.''' ** p. 24.


Egypt

Greek''', as it was the original language of the New Testament. Even the Old Testament was translated into the same language via the Septuagint. *'''Medieval Greek''', also known as '''Byzantine Greek''': the continuation of Koine Greek during Byzantine Greece, up to the demise of the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century. ''Medieval Greek'' is a cover phrase for a whole continuum of different speech and writing styles, ranging from vernacular continuations of spoken Koine that were already approaching Modern Greek in many respects, to highly learned forms imitating classical Attic. Much of the written Greek that was used as the official language of the Byzantine Empire was an eclectic middle-ground variety based on the tradition of written Koine. Commons:Category:Egypt WikiPedia:Egypt Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt


India

. Even the Old Testament was translated into the same language via the Septuagint. *'''Medieval Greek''', also known as '''Byzantine Greek''': the continuation of Koine Greek during Byzantine Greece, up to the demise of the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century. ''Medieval Greek'' is a cover phrase for a whole continuum of different speech and writing styles, ranging from vernacular continuations of spoken Koine that were already approaching Modern Greek in many respects, to highly learned forms imitating classical Attic. Much of the written Greek that was used as the official language of the Byzantine Empire was an eclectic middle-ground variety based on the tradition of written Koine. alt left thumb Blair family home at Shiplake (File:ShiplakeBlairHome01.JPG) Eric Arthur Blair was born on 25 June 1903, in Motihari, Bihar, in India. Commons:Category:India Wikipedia:India Dmoz:Regional Asia India


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