Places Known For

century ancient


Soule

, ''Toponymie du Pays Basque Français et des Pays de l'Adour'', Picard 1977, ISBN 2-7084-0003-7 History Soule has been continuously inhabited since the last glaciation, there are several deposits from the neolithic as well as fifteen protohistoric (Protohistory) settlements. The first text written in Soule dates from the 7th century. Ancient Soule The territory was already inhabited in the Middle Paleolithic; Neanderthal prehistoric settlements have been found in the caves of Xaxixiloaga in Aussurucq and Etxeberri. At the end of the Neolithic the population had extended and assimilated knowledge from other peoples. There are protohistoric settlements that show a simple material life and a lifestyle dominated by migration. Rests of coins and other monetary artifacts have been found, proving the existence of an exchange economy in Soule, which very likely worked as an access point between Aquitaine—Novempopulania—in the north and the southern side of the Pyrenees. At the time of the Roman (Ancient Rome) arrival in the 1st century, Soule was inhabited by an Aquitani tribe named Suburates, who spoke the Aquitanian language (a form of Proto-Basque (Proto-Basque language)). As with other peoples in Aquitaine, the Romans had a somewhat important influence in the territory, although Soule kept its language and culture and was relatively unimportant during the times of the Roman Empire, due to its isolation. The only evidence of Roman influence in Soule exists in the chapelle of the Madeleine, in Tardets (Tardets-Sorholus). Soule is first mentioned as a territory in a text from the 7th Century. In 636 (or 635) the Frankish (Francia) army led by the Duke Arembert was ambushed and defeated by the Basques in a place named "vallis subola". La mort du duc Arembert en Soule massacré par les Basques en 636 This valley is then included in the territory of the "''Wascones''" (Duchy of Vasconia), whicn included intermittently lands to either side of the western and central Pyrenees. It was later referred to as Gascony. Middle Ages right thumb 250px The fort of Mauléon. (File:Fort de Mauléon vu des Allées.jpg) The region of Soule may have developed a primeval political structure before the 11th century with a strong influence of the Kingdom of Pamplona, established in the year 824. However, it would be in 1023 when Sancho VI (Sancho VI William of Gascony) Duke of Gascony would name Guillaume Fort as first Viscount of Soule. His descendants would inherit the title for around two centuries. The Viscounts of Soule had their base in the fortress of Mauléon (Mauléon-Licharre), a strategic region that controlled the pass from Aquitaine to the Iberian peninsula. The viscounts of Soule take advantage of their territory. Despite being small in size, it held a strategic position between the Kingdom of Navarre to the south and the Duchy of Aquitaine to the north. In the year 1152 Eleanor of Aquitaine married Henry II of England, thus the Duchy of Aquitaine joins the Crown of England. In 1261, after ten years of conflict, the last viscount of Soule, Auger III, surrenders the castle of Mauléon to Edward I of England, and as a result the territory of Soule is administrated by the crown of England. It is now when the current network of roads between the Souletin villages is constructed. Soule under English rule The English Soule was under direct authority of the Duke of Aquitaine, who was as well the King of England. Soule is rather unimportant and as a result the control over the territory is delegated to a lord, who keeps the castle of Mauléon and recollects the taxes. The lord of Soule had fourteen captains; from them only one was English, the rest were either natives or Gascons. The ex-viscount Auger III allies with the Kingdom of Navarre, and taking advantage of the war between Philip IV (Philip IV of France), king of Navarre, and Edward I of England, retakes his fortress at Mauléon in 1295, but he is forced to hand it back after Aquitaine is formally declared English is 1303. The Hundred Years' War kept Soule isolated from the exterior for many years. Finally, in 1449, an army led by Gaston IV (Gaston IV, Count of Foix), the Count of Foix and Viscount of Béarn, takes possession of the castle in the name of the French king. It is the end of the English presence in Soule. Modern Period Soule under French rule thumb 250px Church of Musculdy Muskildi (File:Église de Musculdy.jpg) In the mid 15th century, Soule finally recognizes the King of France (Kingdom of France) as his own, with the Basque district becoming the smallest province and exclave of the kingdom and the most distant from the centre of power, Paris. It came to be surrounded by the sovereign Kingdom of Navarre on the south and west and the independent principality of Viscounty of Béarn (Béarn) on the east. In 1511, King Francis I of France urged the Souletins to set down their institutional and legal framework (Fuero#Basque and Pyrenean fueros) on paper, which they did in Bearnese (Bearnese dialect), the administrative written language up to that point. In 1539, an amendment to their region specific laws went on to be written in French, the new official language as decreed by King Francis I. Despite numbering more than fifty towns and villages, Soule was populated by less than 4,000 people. The only town was Mauléon (Mauléon-Licharre), with a population totalling less than 350 people. As of 1512, given its proximity to France and its particular geographic situation surrounded by the Kingdom of Navarre-Bearn and the recently invaded Navarre (Spanish conquest of Iberian Navarre) to the south, Soule got trapped in the political, religious and military manoeuvres derived from its shaky position, with the French Wars of Religion affecting the province tremendously. The end of home rule thumb 250px The pastoral of Soule sinks its roots in the Middle Ages (File:Mendiague1.jpg) thumb 250px Bela Street in Mauléon (1910) (File:Mauléon - Rue Béla (1910).jpg) The province of Soule relied largely on the commons set on the highlands and lowlands of the valley for the use of local farmers and shepherds. However, they were also coveted by local and alien lords with estate grants on Soule. By the mid 17th century and in the context of the Treaty of the Pyrenees, anger spread like fire among common Souletins at the aristocracy's takeover of lands and the curtailment of their legal and institutional sovereignty. In 1661, a widespread rebellion erupted (History of the Basque people#Navarre divided and home rule) led by the priest Bernard Goihenetche 'Matalaz', but was harshly suppressed by an army sent over from Gascony. Still Soule managed to retain many native laws and institutions, with its representatives attending the Parliament of Navarre-Béarn (Kingdom of Navarre#Independent Navarre north of the Pyrenees) (six deputies, two for each estate). The representatives of Soule in the Assembly of the Third Estate turned National Assembly (National Assembly (French Revolution)) held in Paris (1790) voted against the suppression of the French provinces (Provinces of France) and the establishment of a new administrative arrangement that wiped out the existence of their native order, giving way to the ''départément'' system (French department#History). Attempts by the Basque deputies in Paris (French Basque Country) to create a Basque department failed, their districts merged with Béarn among protests of the Basque representatives, and even Soule was divided into two cantons. After the end of the First Carlist War in Spain and the relocation of customs to the Pyrenees from the Ebro (1841), trade with Navarre (Kingdom of Navarre#Later history and the end of the fueros) collapsed. In the late 19th century, the establishment of espadrille factories in Mauleón (Mauléon-Licharre) made up for the decay of economic life and emigration, with a number of inhabitants in Navarre and Aragón pouring in and being recruited on the workforce. Geography thumb right 250px Soule is a very mountainous territory. (File:Sainte-Engrâce vue générale.jpg) Soule is located in the northern basin of the western Pyrenees, and is the smallest of the Basque region (Basque Country (greater region)). It is surrounded by Lower Navarre on the west, Navarre on the south, Béarn on the east and north. Along with Labourd and Lower Navarre, it forms the Northern Basque Country, also known as French Basque Country or ''Pays basque''. Its entire territory extends around the axis provided by the river Saison (Saison (river)), known in Basque as Uhaitza, that flows from south to north until it joins the river Oloron (Gave d'Oloron), that works as a border between Soule and Béarn. Soule includes three geographical regions: the lowlands at north on a territory known as ''Pettara'' or Lower Soule, a forest region known as ''Arbaila'' and the highlands at south, in a region named ''Basabürüa'' with a highest peak at 2,017 meters at the Pic d'Orhy. Orography thumb right 250px The river Saison or Ühaitza. (File:SaisonSoule.jpg) Soule's orography divides into three regions: the northern lowlands, made up by extensive plains; the central region, which is fairly hilly and the southern highlands, which are part of the northwestern Pyrenees, with altitudes reaching up to 2,017 meters above sea level at the Pic d'Orhy. In the Pyrenees, from west to east, the first peak is the Pic d'Orhy, above 2,000 meters and the fourth highest peak in the Basque Country after Iror Errege Maia (Mesa de los Tres Reyes) and Euzkarre among others, all of them in Navarre. Also in the highlands are located the Otsogorrigaina (1,922 m) and Sardekagaina (1,893 m), which are the second and third highest mountains in Soule. In total, there exist more than 20 peaks higher than 1,000 m. Hydrography The river Saison (Saison (river)) (known as Ühaitza in Souletin Basque) is the main river of Soule. It is 60 km long and originates at Licq, in the highlands region. Smaller rivers rising at the Pyrenees join the Saison before it converges with the river Oloron, together flowing into the river Adour. Climate The oceanic climate of Soule is generally warm and humid. The highlands and Pyrenees experience an alpine climate. Demography Soule is the province with the lowest population density of the Northern Basque Country, with 17 people per square kilometer. Soule has experienced a significant population decline since the 19th century; many people have emigrated to larger cities and regions outside the province, such as Labourd, Béarn and Paris. In the last century, Soule has lost more than three quarters of its population, which has caused the need for different municipalities to be merged in order to assure the maintenance of public services. Largest cities class "toc" cellpadding 0 cellspacing 0 width 35% style "float:left; text-align:center;clear:all; margin-left:10px; font-size:95%;" !bgcolor green colspan 8 style "color:white;" Most populated communes -bgcolor #efefef !width 4% Position !width 86% Name !width 10% Inhabitants - 1st '''Mauléon-Licharre''' (''Maule-Lextarre'') 3,347 - 2nd '''Chéraute''' (''Sohüta'') 1,104 - 3rd '''Barcus''' (''Barkoxe'') 774 - 4th '''Viodos-Abense-de-Bas''' (''Bildoze-Onizepea'') 743 - 5th '''Tardets-Sorholus''' (''Atharratze-Sorholüze'') 590 - ), is the Basque dialect (Basque dialects) spoken in Soule, France.


Strumica

. Text says "Unlocated town in Macedonia, also called Astraion, mentioned by Ptolemy and Pliny" by Ptolemy and Pliny (Pliny the Elder). It was later known as ''Tiveriopolis''; it received its present name from the Slavic (Slavic peoples) settlers of the Middle Ages. In modern Greek the town is known as Στρώμνιτσα (''Strómnitsa''), and its name in Turkish (Turkish language) is ''Ustrumca''. History right 310px thumb Strumica at the end of the 19th century. (File:Strumica street.jpg) Ancient period According to archeological research, the beginning of continuous life in Strumica dates back to 6th millennium B.C., a fact proved by the neolith settlement Stranata near the village Angelci, as well as by the findings from the Czar’s Towers site


Timbuktu

the true course of the Niger was presumably known to locals, it was a mystery to the outside world until the late 18th century. Ancient Romans such as Pliny (Pliny the Elder) (N.H. 5.10) thought that the river near Timbuktu was part of the Nile River, a belief also held by Ibn Battuta, while early European explorers thought that it flowed west and joined the Senegal River. East of Mali, the river forms a lake or "Island of Gold" shown here studded with river-washed gold nuggets (this is what the Pizzigani brothers called the island of "''Palolus''", and most commentators take to indicate the Bambuk-Buré goldfields). It is connected by many streams to the southerly "mountains of gold" (labelled "''montanies del lor''", the Futa Djallon Bambouk Mountains and Loma Mountains of Sierra Leone). It is evident the Senegal river morphs east, unbroken, into the Niger River - the cities of "''tenbuch''" (Timbuktu), "''geugeu''" (Gao) and "''mayna''" (Niamey? or a misplaced Niani (Niani, Mali Empire)?) are denoted along the same single river. South of them (barely visible) are what seem like the towns of Kukiya (on the eastern shore of the Island of Gold), and east of that, probably Sokoto (called "Zogde" in the Catalan Atlas) and much further southeast, probably Kano. The inscription above Kano reads merely: "Africa es apelada la terca part del mon, per rao dun rey afer fill d'abrae, qui la senyorega, laquai partida comensa en les pars degipte al flum del cales, e finey en gutzolanes les pars hoccidentals e combren tota la barberia environant tôt lo mis jorn" (trans: "Africa is called the third part of the world, after King Afer, son of Abraham, who lorded over it, its beginning starts in the part of Egypt by the river of Cairo (''Cales'' adjective of Cairo) and the western part ends at Cape Non ("gutzolanes"; Cape Non was called "Caput finis Gozolae" after the Gazzula Berbers of the western Sahara) and covers all of Barbary (land of the Bebers). thumb Senegambia (File:Guillaume Delisle Senegambia 1707.jpg) region, detail from the map of Guillaume Delisle (1707), which still assumes the Senegal connected to the Niger; this would be corrected in subsequent edititions of Delisle's map (1722, 1727), where it was shown ending at a lake, south of the Niger. Portuguese chronicler João de Barros (writing in 1552) says the river's original local Wolof (Wolof language) name was ''Ovedech'' (which according to one source, comes from "vi-dekh", Wolof for "this river"). Barros, ''Décadas da Ásia'' (p.109). See also Bailot (1853: p.199). His contemporary, Damião de Góis (1567) records it as ''Sonedech'' (from "sunu dekh", Wolof for "our river"). See also A.M. de Castilho (1866) ''Descripção e roteiro da costa occidental de Africa'', vol. 1, p.92. Writing in 1573, the Spanish geographer Luis del Marmol Carvajal asserts that the Portuguese (Portuguese people) called it ''Zenega'', the 'Zeneges' (Berber Zenaga (Zenaga people)) called it the ''Zenedec'', the 'Gelofes' (Wolofs (Wolof people)) call it ''Dengueh'', the 'Tucorones' (Fula Toucouleur (Toucouleur people)) called it ''Mayo'', the 'Çaragoles' (Soninke Sarakole (Soninke people) of Ngalam) called it ''Colle'' and further along (again, Marmol assuming Senegal was connected to the Niger), the people of Bagamo' (Bambara (Bambara people) of Bamako?) called it ''Zimbala'' (Jimbala?) and the people of Timbuktu called it the ''Yça''. Marmol (Luis del Marmol Carvajal) (1573), Lib. VIII, ch.3. See also Phérotée de La Croix (1688: Ch. 2 p.406) and Cooley (1841: p.38) thumb A "livable sculpture", Carlos Páez Vilaró (File:Casapueblo.jpg)'s Casapueblo is his home, hotel and museum. A prominent exponent of Afro-Uruguayan art is abstract painter and sculptor Carlos Páez Vilaró. He drew from both Timbuktu and Mykonos to create his best-known work: his home, hotel and atelier Casapueblo near Punta del Este. Casapueblo is a "livable sculpture" and draws thousands of visitors from around the world. Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu


Lviv

. Sights: Arian Tower (1606) only survived part of a medieval fort; the Dominican Sisters Monastery, (1647, rebuilt 1743, 1861); St. Paraskeva Church, with a bell tower, built in 18th century; Ancient Settlement Archeological Site of Belz (old city, probably founded in 1088); Nicholas Cathedral (1926), Church of St. Valentine, (built in 1907-11, neo-gothic style); Jewish cemetery; Bandery villa. *


Damascus

, and with China by the 3rd century. The 1st century Greek (Ancient Greece) historian Nicolaus of Damascus met, at Damascus, the ambassador sent by a king from Dramira "named Pandyan or, according to others, Porus" to Caesar Augustus around 13 CE (Strabo XV.1–4, and Strabo XV.1–73). Strabo XV.1 Keay, p121 His grandfather


Oslo

in Spitzbergen, the largest island in Svalbard. Ultimately, it is revealed that the characters are dealing with an ancient, fungal parasite that was discovered and used first by the Egyptians and then, later, by eleventh century ancient Celts and Druids as a bioweapon. Had it been used in an attempt at genocide? Viatus International has been infiltrated by the Guild. Together, and with the assistance of Senator Sebastian Gorman, they have put a major part of the U.S. population at risk of contracting an appalling fatal plague. Firstly, by obtaining the fungus, and secondly, by combining it with genetically modified corn. A counteragent must be found. Ultimately, an ancient embalming compound is revealed to be the cure. A surprise twist at the end indicates that perhaps the SIGMA team had been traveling with one of the Guild. Director Painter Crowe plays a major role in this excellent drama, and a tantalising teaser leaves the reader clamouring for the next book. Seems to be about 598 Google hits, and practically zero of them in English. '''Delete''' or '''Give to Norwegian Wiki''' as they don't seem to have a page on it yet. JHMM13 (User:JHMM13) 19:54, 3 December 2005 (UTC) *The information is true. It's a sledging hill in Oslo. Does it deserve an entry? Punkmorten (User:Punkmorten) 20:26, 3 December 2005 (UTC) *'''Weak keep'''; I guess it just barely qualifies, but why did we get it in English before the Norwegian Wiki got it? *Dan T.* (User:Dtobias) 05:35, 5 December 2005 (UTC) birth_date WikiPedia:Oslo Dmoz:Regional Europe Norway Oslo Commons:Category:Oslo


Wales

of Bedwas, Caerphilly county borough, south Wales. It has a total enrollment of about 790 pupils ages 11 to 19. Roman Britain At Metchley Park, Roman Military Sites in Britain Birmingham.gov.uk near Harborne, there are the remains of two large first century Ancient Rome

to Bardsey Island in Wales. He ends up in a high-security prison in France. Painter and his team fly over the Arctic Circle to land in Spitzbergen, the largest island in Svalbard. Ultimately, it is revealed that the characters are dealing with an ancient, fungal parasite that was discovered and used first by the Egyptians and then, later, by eleventh century ancient Celts and Druids as a bioweapon. Had it been used in an attempt at genocide? Viatus International has been infiltrated by the Guild. Together, and with the assistance of Senator Sebastian Gorman, they have put a major part of the U.S. population at risk of contracting an appalling fatal plague. Firstly, by obtaining the fungus, and secondly, by combining it with genetically modified corn. A counteragent must be found. Ultimately, an ancient embalming compound is revealed to be the cure. A surprise twist at the end indicates that perhaps the SIGMA team had been traveling with one of the Guild. Director Painter Crowe plays a major role in this excellent drama, and a tantalising teaser leaves the reader clamouring for the next book. Early years Bogdanov was born''' Michael Bogdin''' in Neath, Wales, of a Jewish father (Francis Benzion Bogdin) and a Welsh mother (Rhoda Rees). He was educated at the Lower School of John Lyon Harrow on the Hill, England, at Trinity College, Dublin, and in Germany and France. He trained at the BBC in the 1960s and produced, wrote and directed for television in the UK and Ireland. He was a producer and director at Irish broadcaster RTE from 1966 to 1969, and latterly has worked extensively for BBC Wales,making documentaries and feature films, winning several awards. thumb right Plas Newydd, with the Menai Strait behind (Image:Plas Newydd.jpg) '''Plas Newydd''', located in Llanfairpwllgwyngyll, Anglesey, Wales, is the country seat of the Marquess of Anglesey. The family's former principal seat at Beaudesert (Beaudesert (house)), Staffordshire, was sold and demolished in the 1930s. left thumb 180px Brown Knowl Methodist Church (File:Brown Knowl Church.jpg) '''Broxton''' is a village and civil parish (civil parishes in England) in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. The village is 11 miles south of Chester, and only 10 miles east of Wrexham in Wales. The civil parish also contains the small settlements of Barnhill, Bolesworth, Brown Knowl, Fuller's Moor and Meadow Bank. UK & Ireland Genealogy: Broxton (accessed 24 April 2010) According to the 2001 Census (United Kingdom Census 2001) it had a total population of 390. WikiPedia:Wales Dmoz:Regional Europe United Kingdom Wales commons:Wales - Cymru


Croatia

: www.wienerzeitung.at nachrichten politik oesterreich 278334_Die-vielen-Pflichten-des-Adels.html date 5 July 2011 newspaper Wiener Zeitung language German accessdate 2011-07-11 in 1922. He resigned as Sovereign of the Golden Fleece in 2000 and as head of the Imperial House in 2007. Modern use The study of Ancient Greek in European countries in addition to Latin occupied an important place in the syllabus from the Renaissance until the beginning of the 20th century. Ancient Greek is still taught as a compulsory or optional subject especially at traditional or elite schools throughout Europe, such as public schools (Independent school (UK)) and grammar schools in the United Kingdom. It is compulsory in the Liceo classico in Italy, in the gymnasium in the Netherlands, in some classes in Austria, in Croatia in ''klasicna gimnazija'' and it is optional in the Humanistisches Gymnasium (Gymnasium (school)) in Germany (usually as a third language after Latin and English, from the age of 14 to 18). In 2006 07, 15,000 pupils studied Ancient Greek in Germany according to the Federal Statistical Office of Germany, and 280,000 pupils studied it in Italy. Ancient Greek is also taught at most major University universities worldwide, often combined with Latin as part of Classics. It will also be taught in state primary schools in the UK (United Kingdom), to boost children’s language skills. Ancient Greek 'to be taught in state schools' "Primaries go Greek to help teach English" - Education News - 30 July 2010. "Now look, Latin's fine, but Greek might be even Beta" TES Editorial © 2010 - TSL Education Ltd. Ancient Greek is also taught as a compulsory subject in Gymnasia (Gymnasium (school)) and Lycia (Lycium) in Greece. http: www.fa3.gr phys_educ_2 33-orologio-programma-Gymnasiou.htm http: edu.klimaka.gr leitoyrgia-sxoleivn lykeio 755-wrologio-programma-genika-lykeia.html


Germany

), in the residence ''Villa Austria''. At the time of his death, he was a citizen of Germany, Austria, Hungary and Croatia, having earlier been stateless (statelessness) ''de jure'' and ''de facto'' and possessed passports of Monaco, the Order of Malta, and Spain. Modern use The study of Ancient Greek in European countries in addition to Latin occupied an important place in the syllabus from the Renaissance until the beginning of the 20th century. Ancient Greek is still taught as a compulsory or optional subject especially at traditional or elite schools throughout Europe, such as public schools (Independent school (UK)) and grammar schools in the United Kingdom. It is compulsory in the Liceo classico in Italy, in the gymnasium in the Netherlands, in some classes in Austria, in Croatia in ''klasicna gimnazija'' and it is optional in the Humanistisches Gymnasium (Gymnasium (school)) in Germany (usually as a third language after Latin and English, from the age of 14 to 18). In 2006 07, 15,000 pupils studied Ancient Greek in Germany according to the Federal Statistical Office of Germany, and 280,000 pupils studied it in Italy. Ancient Greek is also taught at most major University universities worldwide, often combined with Latin as part of Classics. It will also be taught in state primary schools in the UK (United Kingdom), to boost children’s language skills. Ancient Greek 'to be taught in state schools' "Primaries go Greek to help teach English" - Education News - 30 July 2010. "Now look, Latin's fine, but Greek might be even Beta" TES Editorial © 2010 - TSL Education Ltd. Ancient Greek is also taught as a compulsory subject in Gymnasia (Gymnasium (school)) and Lycia (Lycium) in Greece. http: www.fa3.gr phys_educ_2 33-orologio-programma-Gymnasiou.htm http: edu.klimaka.gr leitoyrgia-sxoleivn lykeio 755-wrologio-programma-genika-lykeia.html Written in 1949, the anthem reflects the early stages of German separation, in which continuing progress towards reunification of the occupation zones was seen by most Germans as appropriate and natural. Consequently, Becher's lyrics develop several connotations of "unity" and combine them with "fatherland" ('' Commons:Category:Germany Wikipedia:Germany Dmoz:Regional Europe Germany


France

in the form in which it was later popularized was an anonymous 2nd century Greek (Ancient Greek) volume called the ''Physiologus'', which itself summarized ancient knowledge and wisdom about animals in the writings of classical (Classical antiquity) authors such as Aristotle's ''Historia Animalium (History of Animals)'' and various works by Herodotus, Pliny the Elder, Solinus, Aelian (Claudius Aelianus) and other naturalists. After graduating from high school in 1963

influence on the Quantock region beyond isolated finds and hints of transient forts. A Roman port was at Combwich, and it is possible that a Roman road (Roman roads) ran from there to the Quantocks, because the names Nether Stowey and Over Stowey come from the Old English ''stan wey'', meaning ''stone way''. In October 2001 the West Bagborough Hoard of 4th century Roman (Ancient Rome) silver was discovered in West Bagborough. The 681

, Umar Tall declared war on the Khasso kingdom and besieged the French (France) colonial (colonialism) army at Medina Fort (Siege of Medina Fort). The siege failed on July 18 of the same year when Louis Faidherbe, French governor of Senegal, arrived with relief forces. In October 2001 a hoard of 4th-century Roman (Ancient Rome) silver was discovered in the village. The 681 coins included two denarii from the early 2nd century and eight miliarense and 671 siliqua all


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