and outdoor galleries and theatres, Aboriginal (Aboriginal peoples in Canada) heritage attractions and historical sites, as well as an arts community. While many buildings in Peterborough that would have served as examples of the cities heritage and architectural style have been lost over the years due to renovations and modernizations, some examples such as the YMCA building do still stand today as designated architectural landmarks.
of America Plaza (Dallas) Bank of America Plaza , Renaissance Tower (Renaissance Tower (Dallas)), JPMorgan Chase Tower (JPMorgan Chase Tower (Dallas)), and Comerica Bank Tower. Several smaller structures are fashioned in the Gothic Revival (Gothic Revival architecture) style, such as the Kirby Building, and the neoclassical (neoclassical architecture) style, as seen in the Davis (Davis Building) and Wilson (Wilson Building (Dallas, Texas)) Buildings. One architectural "hotbed
architectural "near" twin with about 500 fewer seats. The Detroit Fox is part of the Fox Building, while the St. Louis Fox is a stand-alone theatre. The architectural plaster molds of the Detroit Fox (1928) were re-used on the St. Louis Fox (1929). Early life General SK Sinha was born in Gaya (Gaya, India), Bihar and graduated with Honours from Patna University in 1943 at the young age of 17. He joined the Indian Army soon thereafter, passing out as the Best Cadet
is visible today is clearly Hellenistic, the place has its roots as Hittite ''Wilusa'', and later re-built many times over by Ancient Greeks. Perhaps the most unique "architectural" heritage in the country, some of the Cappadocian '''cave houses and churches''' carved into "fairy chimneys" and '''underground cities''' (in a literal sense!) date back to early Christians hiding from persecution. Successors of Romans, the '''Byzantines''', broke new ground with more ambitious projects, culminating in grand '''Hagia Sophia''' of Istanbul, built in 537, and which had the distinction of being the largest cathedral in the world for almost a thousand years. Most of Byzantine heritage intact today is found in Marmara Region (Marmara (region)), especially in Istanbul, although a stray monastery or two dating back to the era can be found in almost any part of the country. '''Seljuks''', the first ever Turkic state to be founded in Asia Minor, built most of their monuments—which incorporates '''large majestic portals''' and heavily delicate stonework, reminiscent of some landmarks in parts of Asia—in major centres of the time in Eastern (Eastern Anatolia) and Central Anatolia, especially in Konya, their capital. '''Ottomans''', who had considered themselves as a Balkan state until their demise, built most of their landmarks in Balkans and the natural extension of Balkans within today's Turkey—Marmara Region (Marmara (region))—just like the Byzantines, whom the Ottomans inspired to in so many ways. Most of the '''earlier Ottoman monuments''' were built in Bursa, which have little Byzantine and comperatively large Seljuk influences, and later, when the dynasty moved to Europe, in Edirne, some of the major landmarks of which exhibit some kind of "transitional" and fairly experimental style. It wasn't until the Fall of Constantinople (Istanbul) that the Ottomans adopted Byzantine architecture almost full scale with some adjustments. However, the Ottoman imperial architecture possibly reached its zenith not in Istanbul, but in Edirne—in the form of '''Selimiye Mosque''', a work of '''Sinan''', the great Ottoman architecture of 16th century. '''19th century''' brought back the Greek and Roman taste of architectural styles, so there was a huge explosion of '''neo-classical architecture''', as much fashionable in Turkey as in the much of the rest of the world at that time. Galata (Istanbul Galata) side of Istanbul, Izmir (though unfortunately most of which was lost to the big fire of 1922), and numerous towns along the coasts, one most prominent and well preserved example being Ayvalık (Ayvalik), quickly filled with elegant neo-classical buildings. At the same time, people in more inland locations were favouring pleasant, more traditional, and less pretentious '''half-timbered whitewashed houses''', which form picturesque towns such as Safranbolu, Beypazarı (Beypazari), and Şirince in northern, central, and western part of the country respectively. It was also this time beautiful and impressive '''wooden mansions''' of Istanbul's seaside neighbourhoods (Istanbul Bosphorus) and islands (Istanbul Princes' Islands) were built. Other contemporary trends of the era, such as '''Baroque''' and '''Rococo''', didn't make much inroads in Turkey, although there were some experiments of combining them into Islamic architecture, as can be seen at Ortaköy Mosque on the banks of Bosphorus (Istanbul Bosphorus) along with some others. As the landscapes change the more east you go, so does the architectural heritage. The remote valleys and hilltops of Eastern Karadeniz and Eastern Anatolia are dotted with numerous '''medieval Georgian and Armenian churches and castles'''—some of which are nicely well preserved but not all were that lucky. Armenian cathedral on Akdamar Island (Van) of Lake Van and medieval Ani are two that lay somewhere on the midway between perfectly preserved and undergone total destruction, but both are absolutely must-sees if you've made your way that east. For a change, Southeastern Anatolia features more '''Middle East-influenced architecture''', with '''arched courtyards''' and heavy usage of '''yellow stones with highly exquisite masonry'''. It's best seen in Urfa, and especially in Mardin and nearby Midyat. Being on the crossroads of civilizations more often than not also means being the battleground of civilizations. So it's no wonder why so many '''castles and citadels''' dot the landscape, both in towns and countryside, and both on the coasts and inland. Most of the castles built during different stages of history are today main attractions of the towns they are standing on. '''20th century''' wasn't kind on Turkish cities. Due to the pressure caused by high rates of immigration from rural to urban areas, many historical neighbourhoods in cities were knocked down in favour of soulless (and usually, drab ugly) apartment blocks, and outskirts of major cities transformed to shantytowns. There is not really much of a gem in the name of '''modern architecture''' in Turkey. '''Steel-and-glass skyscrapers''', on the other hand, are now slowly and sparsely being erected in major cities, one example where they concentrate much as to form a skyline view being the business district (Istanbul New City) of Istanbul, although hardly impressive compared with major metropolises around the world known for their skyscraper filled skylines. Itineraries * Along the Troad Coast — ancient legends intertwine with beautiful landscapes and the deep blue Aegean Sea * Lycian Way — walk along the remotest section of the country's Mediterranean coast, past ancient cities, forgotten hamlets, and balmy pine forests Do While Turkey is rightly renowned for its warm Mediterranean beaches, '''wintersports''', especially skiing, is very much a possibility—and indeed a popular activity—in the mountainous interior of the country between October and April, with a guaranteed stable snowcover and constant below freezing temperatures between December and March. Some more eastern (Eastern Anatolia) resorts have longer periods of snowcover. Most popular wintersports resorts include Uludağ near Bursa, Kartepe near Izmit, Kartalkaya near Bolu, and Ilgaz (Ilgaz National Park) near Kastamonu in the northwest of the country, Palandöken near Erzurum, and Sarıkamış near Kars in the northeast of the country, and Erciyes near Kayseri in the central part. Saklıkent near Antalya is touted to be one of the places where you can ski in the morning and swim in the warm waters of Mediterranean down the coast in Antalya in the afternoon, though snowcover period in Saklıkent is desperately short as not to let this happen every year. Buy Money In 2005, Turkey dropped six zeroes from its currency, thus making each post-2005 lira worth one million pre-2005 lira (or so called "old lira"). During the transition period between 2005 and 2009, the currency was briefly called new lira (''yeni lira'') officially. Since 1 Jan 2009, a new series of banknotes and coins have been introduced and the currency is again simply called lira (officially Turkish lira, ''Türk Lirası'', locally symbolised TL, or occasionally £; don't be confused if you see the currency symbolised YTL or ytl, standing for ''yeni lira''), The ISO 4217 code is '''TRY''', and this is used throughout our guide to avoid confusion. The lira is divided into 100 ''kuruş'' (abbreviated kr). Since 1 Jan 2010, pre-2009 banknotes and coins (those bearing ''yeni lira'' and ''yeni kuruş'') are '''not''' legal tender, but can be exchanged at certain banks until 31 Dec 2019. There is a new Turkish lira symbol, 10px link http: www.tcmb.gov.tr yeni iletisimgm TurkishLira.php title Turkish Lira Sign (File:Turkish_lira_symbol_black.svg) created by the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey in 2012 after a country-wide contest. thumb TRY1 coin with a portrait of Atatürk (File:Lira coin.png) Banknotes are in TRY5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 denominations. Coins of 1 (very rare in circulation), 5, 10, 25 and 50 kuruşes are legal tender. There's also a TRY1 coin. Currency Exchange There are legal exchange offices in all cities and almost any town. Banks also exchange money, but they are not worth the hassle as they are usually crowded and do not give better rates than exchange offices. You can see the rates an office offers on the (usually electronic) boards located somewhere near its gate. Euros and US dollars are the most useful currencies, but pounds sterling (Bank of England notes only, not Scottish or Northern Irish notes), Swiss francs, Japanese yen, Saudi riyals, and a number of other currencies are also not very hard to exchange. It is important to remember that most exchangers accept only banknotes, it can be very hard to exchange foreign coins. In some places, where there is a meaningful explanation for it, more uncommon currencies can also be exchanged, too, for example Australian dollars may be exchanged in Çanakkale where grandchildren of Anzacs gather to commemorate their grandfathers every year, or in Kaş, which is located just across the Greek island of Kastelorizo, which in turn has a large diaspora in Australia. As a general rule, if a place attracts many visitors from a country, then it is usually possible to exchange that country’s currency there. Tourism-oriented industries in tourism-oriented towns, as well as shops where big amounts of money change hands, like supermarkets, in most parts of the country, generally accept foreign currency (usually limited to Euro and American dollars only), but the rates they accept the currency are usually a little lower than those of exchange offices. Ask first if they accept foreign currency. In September 2013: *USD1 TRY2.06 *€1 TRY2.71 *GBP1 TRY3.21 Credit cards and ATMs Visa and MasterCard are widely accepted, American Express much less so. All credit card users have to enter their PIN codes when using their cards. Older, magnetic card holders are excepted from this, but remember that, unlike some other places in Europe, salespeople haves the legal right to ask you to show a valid ID with a photo on to recognize that you are the owner of the card. ATMs are scattered throughout the cities, concentrated in central parts. It is possible to draw Turkish lira (and rarely foreign currency) from these ATMs with your foreign card. Any major town has at least one ATM. ATMs ask whether to provide instructions in English or in Turkish (and sometimes some other languages, too) as soon as you insert a foreign card (or a Turkish card which is not the operating bank’s own). When withdrawing money from ATMs, if the ATM in question does not belong to the bank that you already have an account in, they charge some percentage (generally 1%) of what you withdraw from your account each time. This percentage is higher for advance withdrawing with your credit card. No establishments require a commission surcharge when using a credit card. Tipping In general, tipping is not considered obligatory. However, it is very common to leave a 5% to 10% tip in restaurants if you're satisfied with the service. At high-end restaurants a tip of 10-15% is customary. It is NOT possible to add tip to the credit card bill. It is very common amongst Turkish people to pay the bill with a credit card and leave the tip in cash or coins. Most waiters will bring your cash back in coins as much as possible, that's because Turkish people don't like to carry coins around and usually leave them at the table. Taxi drivers do not expect tips, but it is common practice to let them keep the change. If you insist on taking exact change back, ask for ''para üstü?'' (pronounced “pah-rah oos-too”, which means “change”). Driver will be reluctant to give it at first, but you will eventually succeed. If you are fortunate enough to try out a Turkish bath, it is customary to tip 15% of the total and split it up among all of the attendants. This is an important thing to keep in mind when tipping in Turkey, and will ensure your experience goes smoothly and is enjoyable. Supermarket cashiers usually round up the total sum to the next 5 kuruş if you pay in cash (the exact sum is extracted when paid by a credit card though). This is not a kind of involuntary tip, as the 2-3-4 kuruşes don’t go into their pockets. It is simply because they are not adequately supplied with enough 1 kuruş coins as it is very rare in circulation. So don’t be surprised if the change given to you is short of a few kuruşes from what should be given to you according to what the electronic board of the till says. It is totally okay to pay the exact sum if you have enough number of 1 kuruş coins. Bargaining In Turkey, bargaining is a must. One can bargain everywhere that doesn’t look too luxurious: shops, hotels, bus company offices, and so on. During your bargaining, don’t look so impressed and interested, and be patient. Since foreigners (especially Western people) aren’t expected to be good at bargaining, sellers are quick to reject any bargaining attempt (or are at least quick to look like so), but be patient and wait, the price will fall! (Don’t forget, even if you are successful at your bargaining attempt, when you get your credit card out of your wallet, rather than cash, the agreed price may rise again, though probably to a lower level than the original one) '''VAT refund''' — You can get a VAT refund (currently 18% or 23% on most items) if you are not a citizen or permanent resident of Turkey. Look for the blue “Tax-Free” sticker on the windowpane or entrance of the shops, these kind of shops are the only places you can get a VAT refund. Don’t forget to take the necessary papers from the shop that will enable you for a VAT reclaim when leaving Turkey. Although Turkey is in a customs union with the European Union for some goods, unlike the situation in the EU, there is currently not an initiative to abolish duty-free shops in the airports. What to buy? Apart from classical tourist souvenirs like postcards and trinkets, here are a few of what you can bring back home from Turkey. *'''Leather clothing''' — Turkey is the biggest leather producer in the world, so the leather clothing is cheaper than elsewhere. Many shops in Laleli, Beyazıt, Mahmutpaşa districts of Istanbul (all around the tram line which goes through Sultanahmet Square) are specialized on leather. *'''Carpets and kilims''' — Many regions in Turkey produce handmade kilims and carpets. Though the symbols and figures differentiate depending on the region in which the carpet is produced, they are generally symbollic expressions based on ancient Anatolian religions and or nomadic Turkic life which takes shape around shamanic beliefs more than 1,000 years ago. You can find shops specialized on handmade carpets and kilims in any major city, tourist spot and Sultanahmet Area. You seriously cannot go anywhere in Turkey without someone trying to sell you a carpet. People will approach you on the street, engage in a little friendly conversation about where you're from, how do you like Turkey, and "would you like to come with me to my uncle's shop? It's just around the corner, and has the best authentic kilims." It can be irritating if you let it get to you, but remember that a large part of these people's economy comes from tourist's wallets so you can't blame them for trying. *'''Silk''' — Dresses and scarves. Although can be found in many parts of the country, silk fans should head for Bursa and before that, pick up basics of bargaining. *'''Earthenware''' — Handmade Cappadocian pottery (amphoras, old-style plates, flowerpots etc.) are made of local salty clay. Salt content of clay, thanks to salt spray produced by the Salt Lake –which is the second largest lake in Turkey- in the heartland of Central Anatolia, is what makes local earthenware top quality. In some Cappadocian towns, it is possible to see how these artifacts are produced, or even to experience producing one, at the dedicated workshops. Tiles with classical Ottoman motives that are produced in Kütahya are also famous. *'''Turkish delight''' and '''Turkish coffee''' — If you like these during your Turkey trip, don’t forget to take a few packages back home. Available everywhere. *'''Honey''' — The pine honey (''çam balı'') of Marmaris is famous and has a much stronger taste and consistency than regular flower honeys. Although not easily attained, if you can find, don’t miss the honey of Macahel valley, made out of flowers of a temperate semi-rainforest, which is almost completely out of human impact, in the far northeastern Black Sea Region. *'''Chestnut dessert''' — Made out of syrup and chestnuts grown on the foothills of Mt. Uludağ, chestnut dessert (''kestane şekeri'') is a famous and tasty product of Bursa. There are many variations, such as chocolate coated ones. Chestnut dessert can be found in elsewhere, too, but relatively more expensive and in smaller packages. *'''Meerschaum souvenirs''' — Despite its name meaning “sea foam” which it resembles, meerschaum (''lületaşı'') is extracted only in one place in the world: landlocked Eskişehir province in the extreme northwest part of Central Anatolia Region. This rock, similar to gypsum at sight, is carved into smoking pipes and cigarette holders. It has a soft and creamy texture and makes for a great decorative item. Available at some shops in Eskişehir. *'''Castile (olive oil) soap''' — Natural, a silky touch on your skin, and a warm Mediterranean atmosphere in your bathroom. Absolutely cheaper than those to be found in Northern and Western Europe. Street markets in the Aegean Region (Aegean_Turkey) and southern Marmara Region (Marmara_(region)) is full of olive oil soap, almost all of which are handmade. Even some old folk in the Aegean Region is producing their castile soaps in the traditional way: during or just after the olive harvest, neighbours gather in yards around large boilers heated by wood fire, then lye derived from the wood ash is added to hot water and olive oil mix. Remember – supermarkets out of the Aegean Region are generally offering no more than industrial tallow based soaps full of chemicals. In cities out of the Aegean Region, natural olive oil soap can be found in shops specialized in olive and olive oil. Some of these shops are even offering ecological soaps: made of organic olive oil and sometimes with additions of organic essential oils. * '''Other soaps''' unique to Turkey are: laurel soaps (''defne sabunu'') which is produced mainly in Antakya (Antioch), soaps of Isparta enriched with rose oil which is produced abundantly in the area around Isparta, and ''bıttım sabunu'', a soap made out of the oil of seeds of a local variety of pistachio tree native to the mountains of Southeastern Region (Southeastern Anatolia). In Edirne, soaps shaped as various fruits are produced. Not used for their lather, rather they make a good assortment when different “fruits” are placed in a basket on a table, they fill the air with their sweet scent as well. *'''Olive-based products apart from soap''' — Other olive-based products to give a try are olive oil shampoos, olive oil based eau de colognes and ''zeyşe'', abbreviation from the first syllables of ''zeytin şekeri'', a dessert similar to chestnut desserts, but made from olives. '''WARNING'''! Taking any antique (defined as something more than 100 years old) out of Turkey is subject to heavy restrictions or, in many cases, forbidden. If someone offers to sell you an antique, either he she is a liar trying to sell cheap imitations or he she is committing a crime which you are an accessory to, if you purchase the item. Eat thumb ''Adana kebap'', a skewer of minced meat spiced with chili and topped with ''pide'' bread, a speciality of Adana (Image:AdanaKebap.JPG) Turkish cuisine combines Mediterranean, Central Asian, Caucasian, and Arabic influences, and is extremely rich. Beef is the most important meat (lamb is also common but pork is very hard to find although not illegal), and eggplant (aubergine), onion, lentil, bean, tomato, garlic, and cucumber are the primary vegetables. An abundance of spices is also used. The main staples are rice (''pilav''), bulgur wheat and bread, and dishes are typically cooked in vegetable oil or sometimes butter. There are many kinds of specialized restaurants to choose from, since most do not prepare or serve other kinds of food. Traditional Turkish restaurants serve meals daily prepared and stored in a bain-marie. The meals are at the entrance so you can easily see and choose. Kebapçis are restaurants specialized in many kinds of kebab. Some Kebab restaurants serve alcohol while others don't. There are subtypes like ciğerci, Adana kebapçısı or İskender kebapçısı. Fish restaurants typically serve meze (cold olive oil dishes) and Rakı or wine. Dönerci's are prevalent through country and serve döner kebap as a fast food. Köfeci's are restaurants with meatballs (Köfte) served as main dish. Kokoreçci, midyeci, tantunici, mantıcı, gözlemeci, lahmacuncu, pideci, çiğ köfteci, etsiz çiğ köfteci are other kinds of local restaurants found in Turkey which specialization in one food. A full Turkish meal at Kebab restaurant starts with a soup, often lentil soup (''mercimek çorbasi''), and a set of ''meze'' appetizers featuring olives, cheese, pickles and a wide variety of small dishes. Meze can easily be made into a full meal, especially if they are consumed along with ''rakı''. The main course is usually meat: a common dish type and Turkey's best known culinary export is '''kebab''' (''kebap''), grilled meat in various forms including the famous ''döner kebap'' (thin slices of meat shaved from a giant rotating spit) and ''şişkebab'' (skewered meat), and a lot more others. ''Köfte'' (meatball) is a variation of the kebab. There are hundreds of kinds of köfte throughout Anatolia, but only about 10 to 12 of them are known to the residents of the larger cities, kike İnegöl köfte, Dalyan köfte, sulu köfte etc. Eating on the cheap is mostly done at Kebab stands, which can be found everywhere in Istanbul and other major cities. For the equivalent of a couple dollars, you get a full loaf of bread sliced down the middle, filled with broiled meat, lettuce, onions, and tomatoes. For North Americans familiar with donairs wrapped in pita bread or wraps, you should look for the word "Dürüm" or "Dürümcü" on the windows of the kebab stands and ask for your donair kebab to be wrapped in a dürüm or lavaş bread depending on the region. Vegetarians Vegetarian restaurants are not common, and can be found only in very central parts of big cities and some of the tourist spots. However, every good restaurant offers vegetable dishes, and some of the restaurants offering traditional “ev yemeği” (“home food”) have olive-oil specialities which are vegetarian in content. A vegetarian would be very happy in the Aegean region, where all kinds of wild herbs are eaten as main meals, either cooked or raw, dressed with olive oil. But a vegetarian would have real difficulty in searching for food especially in Southeastern region, where a dish without meat is not considered a dish. At such a place, supermarkets may help with their shelves full of canned vegetables, or even canned cooked olive-oil courses and fresh fruits. If you are a vegetarian and going to visit rural areas of Southeastern region, better take your canned food with you, as there will be no supermarkets to rescue you. Desserts thumb Turkish delight (Image:Lokumblokjes op bord.JPG) Some Turkish desserts are modeled on the sweet and nutty Arabic kind: famous dishes include ''baklava'', a layered pastry of finely ground nuts and phyllo dough soaked in honey and spices, and Turkish Delight (''lokum''), a gummy confection of rosewater and sugar. There are also many more kinds of desserts prepared using milk predominantly, such as kazandibi, keşkül, muhallebi, sütlaç, tavuk göğsü, güllaç etc. Breakfast Turkish Breakfast, tend to comprise of çay (tea), bread, olives, feta cheese, tomato, cucumber and occasionally spreads such as honey and jam. This can become very monotonous after a while. A nice alternative to try (should you have the option) is '''Menemen''': a Turkish variation on scrambled eggs omelet. Capsicum (Red Bell Pepper), onion, garlic and tomato are all combined with eggs. The meal is traditional cooked (and served) in a clay bowl. Try adding a little chili to spice it up and make sure to use lots of bread as well for a filling hot breakfast. Bread is omnipresent in Turkey, at any given meal you'll be presented with a large basket of crusty bread. Ubiquitous '''''simit''''' (also known as ''gevrek'' in some Aegean (Aegean Turkey) cities such as Izmir), much like bagel but somewhat thinner, crustier, and with roasted sesame seeds all over, is available from trolleys of street vendors in virtually any central part of any town and city at any time except late at night. Perhaps with the addition of Turkish feta cheese (''beyaz peynir'') or cream cheese (''krem peynir'' or ''karper''), a couple of ''simit''s make up a filling and a very budget conscious breakfast (as each costs about 0.75 TL), or even a lunch taken while on the go. Drink thumb Turkish coffee served with water and Turkish delight in Istanbul (File:Turkish coffee in Istanbul.jpg) '''Turkish coffee''' (''kahve''), served in tiny cups, is strong and tasty, just be careful not to drink the sludgy grounds at the bottom of the cup. It is very different from the so-called Turkish coffees sold abroad. ''Sade kahve'' is served black, while ''as şekerli'', ''orta şekerli'' and ''çok şekerli'' will get you a little, some or a lot of sugar in your cup. Instant coffees, cappuccinos, and espressos are gaining more popularity day by day, and can be found with many different flavours. Despite coffee taking a substantial part in national culture, '''tea''' (''çay'') is also very popular and is indeed the usual drink of choice. Most Turks are heavy drinkers of tea in their daily lives. Having only entered the scene in the 1930s, tea quickly gained ground against coffee due to the fact that Yemen, the traditional supplier of coffee to Turkey then, was cut off from the rest of the Ottoman Empire in the early 20th century, and the first tea plants took root in Eastern Karadeniz after some unsuccessful trials to grow it in the country, as a result of protectionist economic policies that were put into effect after World War I. Be careful, if your tea is prepared by locals, it can be much stronger than you're used to. Although it is not native-typical and a rather touristic feature, you have to taste the special '''apple tea''' (''elma çayı'') or '''sage tea''' (''adaçayı'', literally '''island tea''') of Turkey. right thumb A glass of ayran (File:Fresh ayran.jpg) '''Ayran''' is a popular drink of water and yoghurt not unlike the Finnish Russian "buttermilk" or Indian "lassi", but always served without sugar (and, in fact, typically with a little salt added). If you're travelling by bus over the Taurus Mountains, ask for "köpüklü ayaran' or "yayık ayaranı", a variety of the drink much loved by locals. '''Boza''' is a traditional cold, thick drink that originates from Central Asia, but is also common in several Balkan (Balkans) countries. It is fermented ''bulgur'' (a kind of wheat) with sugar and water additions. '''Vefa Bozacisi''' is the best known and traditional producer of boza in Istanbul. In Ankara, you get excellent Boza from Akman Boza Salonu in the old city in Ulus. Boza can also be found on the shelves of many supermarkets, especially in winter, packaged in 1-litre PET bottles. However these bottled bozas lack the sourness and consistency of traditional boza, they are sweeter and less dense. right thumb 220px A cup of salep (File:Salep_drink.jpg) '''Sahlep''' (or '''Salep''') is another traditional hot drink, made from milk, orchid root and sugar, typically decorated with cinnamon. It is mostly preferred in winter and can be found in cafés and patisseries (''pastane'') and can be easily confused by the looks of it with cappuccino. You can also find instant sahlep in many supermarkets sold with the name ''Hazır Sahlep''. '''Red Poppy Syrup''' is one of the traditional Turkish drinks made of red poppy petals, water and sugar by natural ways. Bozcaada is famous with red poppy syrup.brands of '''colas''', '''sodas''' and '''fruit-flavoured sodas''' are readily available and much consumed alongside some local brands. Please note, in Turkish, ''soda'' means '''mineral water''', whereas what is called as soda in English is ''gazoz'' or ''sade gazoz'' in Turkish. file:Toasting.JPG right thumb Three members of a Turkish family toast with rakı during a meal While a significant proportion of Turks are devout Muslims, alcoholic beverages are legal, widely available, and thoroughly enjoyed by the locals. The local firewater of choice is '''rakı''', an anise-flavoured liquor double distilled from fermented grape skin. It is usually mixed with water and drunk with another glass of iced water to accompany it. You may order 'tek' (single) or 'duble' (double) to indicate the amount of rakı in your glass. Make sure to try it but don't overindulge as it is very potent. Remember not to mix it with anything else. There is a wide selection of different types in supermarkets. Mey and Efe Rakı are two of the biggest producers. Only the connaisseurs know which type is the best. ''Yeni Rakı'' which is a decent variety has the wıdest distribution and consumption. As for Turkish '''wine''', the wines are as good as the local grape varieties. ''Kalecik Karası'' from Ankara, ''Karasakız'' from Bozcaada, ''Öküzgözü'' from Elmalı, ''Boğazkere'' from Diyarbakır (Diyarbakir) are some of the most well-known varieties. The biggest winemakers are Kavaklıdere Doluca Sevilen and Kayra with many good local vineyards especially in the Western part of the country. In addition liquory fruit wines of Şirince near Izmir are well worth tasting. One specific sweet red wine to try while you're there is Talay Kuntra are two major Turkish '''breweries'''. Efes and Tekel Birası are two widely known lagers. In addition, you can find locally brewed Tuborg, Miller, Heineken, and Carlsberg too. Smoke All cigarettes are sold freely and are still relatively cheap by western standards. Although many, if not most, Turkish people do smoke, there is a growing health awareness about smoking and the number of smokers is slowly but steadily declining, and the rigid smoking ban that was introduced is surprisingly enforced. Smoking in the presence of someone who does not smoke in a public place requires their permission. If someone does not like the smoke, they will ask you not to smoke or they will cough, then just stop and apologize. This is what the locals do. If you are invited to someone's home, do not smoke unless the host does first, and after he she does, then you can ask for his her permission to smoke. If you are in a place where people smoke, you can smoke, but if you are in place where no one is smoking, ask them first for their permission. Smoking ban Smoking is banned in public places (e.g. airports, metro stations and indoor train stations, schools, universities, government administration buildings, in all workplaces, concert halls, theatres and cinemas) and on public transport (airplanes, ferries, trains, suburban trains, subways, trams, buses, minibuses, and taxis). Smoking is banned in sports stadiums, the only outdoor areas where this ban is extended. It is a finable offence of TRY69. Separately smoking is also banned, in restaurants, bars, cafes, traditional teahouses, the remaining air-conditioned public places including department stores and shopping mall restaurants; and there are no exceptions as indoor non-smoking sections are also banned. Apart from a fine for smokers, there is a heavy fine of TRY5,000 for owners, for failing to enforce the ban properly and that is why it is strictly enforced by these establishments. In Istanbul, especially in non-tourist areas, some bars restaurants music venues and even work places will bring you an ashtray as there will be many people smoking inside, even though there is a sign on the wall forbidding it, many people consider it to be up to the discretion of the owners workers of the building. However, bars restaurants music venues in tourist areas (e.g. Beyoğlu, Sişli etc...) are relentlessy "raided" (and in case of any violations – not just for flouting the smoking ban – fined heavily) by the zabıta (municipal official), so these establishments will much less likely dare to violate the bans. Although such "raids" will be disconcerting for tourists, customers will not be affected as the zabıta does not issue fines to customers – at most will be asked to leave the place, in case of serious violations. However the smoking ban is openly flouted in government administration buildings, where the civil servants seem to think that they are somehow above the law. Outside the cities and tourist resorts, the smoking ban is less rigidly enforced in small towns and in the villages hardly at all, because the municipal police (zabıta) rarely comes to these places to enforce it and issue fines, leading to some establishments and its customers to ignore this, but even there it is nevertheless best to follow the less enforced smoking ban. While smoking is strictly prohibited on public transport, you will see some taxi drivers smoking in their taxis, which are also included in the smoking ban, but is the only form of public transport where this ban is openly flouted. When entering the taxi just request the taxi driver not to smoke, and he will politely oblige - in fact most of them will put out their cigarettes immediately once they see a customer hailing them or approaching them. Sleep Accommodation in Turkey varies from 5-star hotels to a simple tent pitched in a vast plateau. So the prices vary hugely as well. Hotels All major cities and tourist spots have '''5-star hotels''', many of them are owned by international hotel chains like Hilton, Sheraton, Ritz-Carlton, Conrad to name a few. Many of them are concrete blocks, however some, especially the ones out of cities, are bungalows with private gardens and private swimming pools. If you are into holiday package kind of thing in a Mediterranean_Turkey Mediterranean '''resort''', you’d definitely find better rates when booking back at home rather than in Turkey itself. The difference is considerable, compared with what you’d pay when booking at home, you may end up paying twice as much if you simply walk in the resort. Hostels and guesthouses '''Youth hostels''' are not widespread, there are a few in Istanbul, mainly around Sultanahmet Square where Hagia Sophia and Blue Mosque are, and still fewer are recognized by Hostelling International (HI, former International Youth Hostel Federation, IYHF). However, '''guesthouses''' pensions (''pansiyon'') provide cheaper accommodation than hotels, replacing the need for hostels for low-cost accommodation, regardless of their visitors’ age. Please note, ''pansiyon'' is the word in Turkish which is also used for small hotels with no star rankings, so somewhere with this name does not automatically mean it must be very cheap (expect up to 50 YTL daily per each person). B&Bs are also generally covered by the word ''pansiyon'', as most of them present breakfast (not always included in the fee, so ask before deciding whether or not to stay there). Unique in the country, Olympos (Olympos (Turkey)) to the southwest of Antalya is known for its pensions welcoming visitors in the wooden tree-houses or in wooden communal sleeping halls. It is possible to rent '''a whole house''' with two rooms, a kitchen, a bathroom, and necessary furnitures such as beds, chairs, a table, a cooker, pots, pans, usually a refrigerator and sometimes even a TV. Four or more people can easily fit in these houses which are called ''apart hotels'' and can be found mainly in coastal towns of Marmara (Marmara_(region)) and Northern Aegean regions (Aegean_Turkey), which are more frequented by Turkish families rather than foreigners. They are generally flats in a low-story apartment building. They can be rented for as cheap as 25 YTL daily (not per person, this is the daily price for the whole house!), depending on location, season and the duration of your stay (the longer you stay, the cheaper you pay daily). öğretmenevi - teacher's house Like Atatürk statues and crescent-and-star flags etched into the sides of mountains, the öğretmenevi (“teacher’s house”) is an integral part of the Turkish landscape. Found in almost every city in Turkey, these government-run institutions serve as affordable guesthouses for educators on the road and – since anyone is welcome if space is available – for those traveling on a teacher’s budget (about 35TRY person, WIFI and hot water avalaible, Breakfast (Khavalti) 5TRY). For the most part, these guesthouses are drab affairs, 1970s-era concrete boxes usually painted in a shade of pink and found in some of the least interesting parts of town. To find the teacher's house in a town ask around for öğretmenevi or use the address finder on www.ogretmenevim.com Agritourism Recently, Bugday Association has launched a project named ''TaTuTa'' (acronym from the first syllables of ''Tarım-Turizm-Takas'': Agriculture-Tourism-Barter of knowledge ), a kind of WWOOF-ing (Agritourism), which connects farmers practicing '''organic ecological agriculture''' and individuals having an interest at organic agriculture. The farmers participating in ''TaTuTa'' share a room of their houses (or a building in the farm) with the visitors without charge, and the visitors help them in their garden work in return. For more about ''TaTuTa'', see and RV-camping There are many private estates dotting the whole coastline of Turkey, which the owner rents its property for campers. These '''campsites''', which are called ''kamping'' in Turkish, have basic facilities such as tap water, toilets, tree shade (this is especially important in dry and hot summers of the Aegean_Turkey western and southern (Mediterranean_Turkey) coasts) and some provide electricity to every tent via individual wires. Pitching a tent inside the cities and towns apart from campsites is not always approved, so you should always ask the local administrator (village chief ''muhtar'' and or gendarme ''jandarma'' in villages, municipalities ''belediye'' and or the local police ''polis'' in towns) if there is a suitable place near the location for you to pitch your tent. Pitching a tent in the forest without permission is OK, unless the area is under protection as a national park, a bioreserve, a wildlife refuge, a natural heritage or because of some other environmental concern. Whether it is an area under protection or not, setting fire in forests apart from the designated fireplaces in recreational (read “picnic”) areas is forbidden anyway. '''Stores''' offering camping gear, while present, are hard to come across, being located on back alleys, underground floors of large shopping arcades, or simply where you would least expect to find them. So, unless you are exactly sure you can obtain what you need at your destination, it's best to pack along your gear if intending to camp. In smaller stores in non-major towns, the price of many of the stuff on sale is pretty much negotiable (Bargaining)—it is not uncommon for shop attendants to ask TRY30 for camp stove fuel, whereas it would cost typically TRY15 or even less in another store in a neighbouring town. '''Caravan trailer parks''' cannot be found as much as they used to be; there remains only a few, if any, from the days hippies tramped the Turkish highways with their vans—perhaps the most famous one, the Ataköy caravan park, known amongst the RV-ers for its convenient location in the city of Istanbul is long history (but there is another one (Istanbul Western Suburbs#Caravan park) still in operation several kilometres out in the western suburbs of the city). However, caravan riders can stay overnight in numerous resting areas along the highways and motorways, or virtually in any place which seems to be suitable. Filling the water tanks and discharging wastewater effluent seems to matter most. Learn *'''Naile's Art Home is a marbling paper (Ebru) gallery and workshop located in Cappadocia. *'''Kayaköy Art School located in Kayaköy, a ghost town near Fethiye is offering art classes in summer, specializing on photography, painting, and sculpture. *You can take the '''Ottoman Turkish''' classes in Adatepe, a village frequented by intellectuals near Küçükkuyu Altınoluk in the northern Aegean Region. You can also participate in '''philosophy classes taking place every summer in nearby Assos , organized as a continuation of the ancient “agora” ”forum” tradition of Mediterranean cities. *'''Glass workshops''' located around Beykoz on the northern Asian banks of the Bosphorus in Istanbul, are offering one-day classes that you can learn making (recycled) glass and ornaments made of glass. *There are many '''language schools''' where you can study Turkish in most of the big cities. Ankara University affiliated ''Tömer'' is one of the most popular language schools in Turkey and has branches in many big cities, including Istanbul, Ankara, and Izmir among others. *Many Turkish '''universities''' (both public and private) are participating in pan-European '''student exchange''' programs (Socrates, Erasmus, and the like). Some also have agreements with non-European universities, too. Check with your own university and the one where you intend to study in Turkey. *Many foreigners living in Istanbul support themselves by teaching English. Finding a good teaching job is usually easier with a well-recognized certificate like the ones listed below: **'''ITI Istanbul''' in 4. Levent runs Cambridge University's CELTA and DELTA courses year-round Work as an English teacher is reasonably easy to stumble upon. ESL teachers with a Bachelor’s Degree and TESOL Certificate can expect to earn TRY800-2,500 (monthly) and will usually teach 20–35 hours in a week. Contracts will sometimes include accommodations, airfare, and health-care. Being that import-export is huge in Turkey, there are also many opportunities outside of teaching, though these are often much more difficult to find and require some legal work. You need to have a work permit to work in Turkey. The control over illegal workers have grown stricter in the past five years with the consequence of deportation, so take the work permit issue seriously. However, if you have your own company in Turkey you are allowed to "manage" it without having a work permit. Setting up what is known as an FDI (foreign direct investment) company is relatively straightforward, takes a few days and costs around TRY2,300 (April 2007). You don't need a Turkish partner, the company can be 100% foreign owned and requires a minimum of two people as shareholders. Running costs for a company average about TRY2,500 per year for a small to medium enterprise, less for an inactive company. Owning a company allows you to be treated as Turkish in respect of purchasing real estate and bypasses the need for military permission and allows you to complete a sale in one day if required. Stay safe Dial '''155''' for police, from any telephone without charge. However, in rural areas there is no police coverage, so dial '''156''' in such a place for ''jandarma'' (Military Police), a military unit for rural security. Big cities in Turkey, especially Istanbul, are not immune to '''petty crime'''. Although petty crime is not especially directed towards tourists, by no means are they exceptions. Snatching, pickpocketing (Pickpockets), and mugging are the most common kinds of petty crime. However, recently with the developing of a camera network which watches streets and squares –especially the central and crowded ones- 24-hour a day in Istanbul, the number of snatching and mugging incidents declined. Just like anywhere else, following common sense is recommended. (Please note that the following recommendations are for the big cities, and most small-to-mid size cities usually have no petty crime problems at all) Have your wallet and money in your front pockets instead of back pockets, backpack or shoulder bag. You should drive defensively at all times and take every precaution while driving in Turkey. Drivers in Turkey routinely ignore traffic regulations, including driving through red lights and stop signs, and turning left from the far right lane; these driving practices cause frequent traffic accidents. Drivers should be aware of several particular driving practices prevalent in Turkey. Drivers who experience car troubles or accidents pull to the side of the road and turn on their emergency lights to warn other drivers, but many drivers place a large rock or a pile of rocks on the road about 10-15 meters behind their vehicles instead of turning on emergency lights. You may not use a cell phone while driving. It is strictly prohibited by law. Don’t exhibit your camera or cellphone for too long if it is a new and or expensive model (they know what to take away, no one will bother to steal a ten-year-old cell phone as it would pay very little). The same goes for your wallet, if it’s overflowing with money. Leave a wide berth and move away from the area quickly if you see two or more people begin to argue and fight as this may be a ruse to attract your attention while another person relieves you of your valuables. Be alert, this often happens very quickly. Watch your belongings in crowded places and on public transport, especially on trams and urban buses. Avoid dark and desolate alleys at night. If you know you have to pass through such a place at night, don’t take excessive cash with you but instead deposit your cash into the safe-box at your hotel. Stay away from demonstrating crowds if the demonstration seems to be turning into an unpeaceful one. Also in resort towns, when going to beach, don’t take your camera or cell phone with you if there will be no one to take care of them while you are swimming. If you notice that your wallet has been stolen it is wise to check the nearest trash cans before reporting the loss to the police. It is often the case that thieves in Turkey will drop the wallet into the trash to avoid being caught in possession of the wallet and proven a thief. Obviously it is highly likely that your money will no longer be in it, but there is a chance that your credit cards and papers will be. See also scams (Istanbul#Scams) section of Istanbul article to have an idea about what kinds of '''scams''' you may come across with in other parts of the country too, especially the touristy ones, not just Istanbul. Upon entering some museums, hotels, metro stations, and almost all shopping malls, especially in larger cities, you will notice '''security checkpoints''' similar to those found in airports. Don't worry, this is the standard procedure in Turkey and does not imply an immediate danger of attack. These security screenings are also conducted in a much more relaxed way than the airports, so you will not have to remove your belt to avoid the alarm when walking through the metal detector. Though slightly off-topic be advised to '''carry passport''' or other means of identification at all times. One may not be requested to show them for a long period, then all of a sudden a minibus is checked by the traffic police (or the military, particularly in Eastern Turkey), or one runs into an officer of the law with time on his hand, and one must show papers. Some government buildings may ask you to temporarily surrender your passport in return for equipment such as headphones for simultaneous translation etc. and you may find your passport stored in an open box along with the locals ID cards which may be a little disconcerting. Hotels may request you to hand your passport in until you paid the bill, which puts you into an awkward situation. Referring to the police always made them hand the passport back, once the registration procedure was finalized. Showing a personal visiting card, one or two credit cards or knowing the address of a respectable hotel may solve the no-papers situation, but any self-respecting officer will tell you that you are in the wrong, and will be sorry next time. If treated politely however police and military can be quite friendly and even offer rides to the next city (no joke intended). If you intend to travel to Eastern (Eastern_Anatolia) or Southeastern Anatolia, stay ahead of the news. Although it offers many beautiful sights, the situation is far from secure due to '''ethnic strife''' and protests, sometimes resulting in violence. The region is far from a war zone, but take precaution when visiting this volatile place. The real risk of threat is not very big though, if you stick on major routes and follow common sense rules (such as avoiding demonstrations). Be careful when '''crossing the roads''' , as mentioned in the get around on foot (Turkey#On foot) section. Animals The Turkish wilderness is home to both poisonous and non-poisonous '''snake''' (''yılan'') species. In fact, humid forests of the northeastern Black Sea region (Black_Sea_Turkey) is the habitat of a small-sized snake which is one of the most poisonous in the world. Southern (Mediterranean_Turkey) and especially southeastern (Southeastern Anatolia) parts (even cities) of the country have large numbers of '''scorpions''' (''akrep''), so exercise caution if when you are sleeping on open rooftops, which is common in the southeastern region in summer. If you are bitten by one, seek urgent medical aid. As for wild mammals, presumably the most dangerous ones are '''wolves''', '''bears''' and '''wild boars'''. All of these animals live only in mountainous areas (of almost all regions) and your chance of sighting one is very low (except boars which are not so rare). Wolves and bears do not attack if you don’t follow or disturb them (or, particularly, their young) aggressively, however boars are known to attack even with only the slightest provocation. The biggest animal threat comes from '''stray dogs''' (or sheepdogs in rural areas). Don’t assume you will come across gangs of aggressive stray dogs next to the gate of Hagia Sophia (Istanbul Sultanahmet-Old_City#See), or the beach club however. They are mostly found in rural areas and non-central parts of the cities. They are usually discreet and are usually more afraid of you than you are of them. '''Rabies''' (''kuduz'') is endemic in Turkey (and most of the world) so anyone bitten by a dog or other carnivore should seek urgent treatment, despite what you may be told by your hotel or other well meaning strangers. Many '''stray dogs''' you’ll see in the cities bear plastic “ear rings”. Those ear tags mean the dog was cleaned up, vaccinated (against rabies and a number of other diseases), sterilized, and then returned back to the streets as this is the most humane treatment (compare with keeping them in a cage or a cage-like environment or putting them to sleep). The process is going on, so we can assume the stray dog problem in Turkey will disappear in natural ways sometime in the future. Tourism Police There are "Tourism Police" sections of the police departments of Ankara , Antalya, Istanbul (in Sultanahmet (Istanbul Sultanahmet-Old City)), and Izmir providing help specifically for tourists, where travellers can report passport loss and theft or any other criminal activity, they may have become victims of. The staff is multilingual and will speak English, German, French, and Arabic. Stay healthy Dial '''112''' from any telephone, anywhere, free of charge for an ambulance. '''Food safety''' - Food is generally free of parasitic or bacterial contamination, but be prudent anyway. Look at where local people are preferring to eat. Do not eat stuff that is sold outdoors, at least in summer and at least which local folk don’t eat. They can spoil fairly quickly without needed refrigeration. Wash thoroughly and or peel fresh fruits and vegetables. They may be free of biological contaminants but their skin is probably heavily loaded with pesticides (unless you see the not-very-common certified organic produce marker on, of course). Food in western regions of the country is OK for (western) travellers for the most part, but the more east, south, and northeast you go, the more unaccustomed contents in the food you’ll come across, like goat or goose meat or hot heavy spices. These contents may or may not cause diarrhea (Travellers' diarrhea), but it is wise to have at least some anti-diarrhea medicine nearby, especially if you are going to travel to places a bit off-beaten-track. '''Water safety''' - However tempting it may be on a hot day, try to avoid water from public water tanks and fountains (''şadırvan''), frequently found in the vicinity of mosques. Also, though tap water is mostly chlorinated, it is better to drink only bottled water except when in remote mountain villages connected to a local spring. Bottled water is readily available everywhere except the most remote, uninhabited spots. The most common volumes for bottled water are 0.5 litre and 1.5 L. 5 L, 8 L, 10 L, and gigantic 19 L bottles (known as office jar in the West, this is the most common variety used in households, delivered to houses by the employees of specialized water selling shops, because it is far too heavy to carry) can also be found with varying degrees of possibility. General price for half-a-litre and one-and-a-half-litre bottled water is TRY0.50 and TRY1.25 respectively in kiosks stalls in the central parts of the cities and towns (can be much higher in a touristy or monopolistic place such as beach, airport, café of a much-visited museum, kiosk of a roadside recreation facility), while it can be as cheap as TRY0.15 and TRY0.35 respectively in supermarkets during winter (when the number of bottled water sales drop) and a little higher in summer (still cheaper than kiosks, though). Water is served free of charge in intercity buses, packaged in 0.25 lt plastic cups, whenever you request from the steward. In kiosks, water is sold chilled universally, sometimes so cold that you have to wait the ice to thaw to be able to drink it. Supermarkets provide it both reasonably chilled and also at room temperature. If you have no chance of finding bottled water –for example, in wilderness, up in the eastern highlands- always boil your water; if you have no chance of boiling the water, use chlorine tablets –which can be provided from pharmacies in big cities-, or devices like LifeStraw. Also avoid swimming in fresh water, which you are not sure about its purity, and at seawater in or near the big cities –unless a beach which is declared safe to swim exists. And lastly, be cautious about water, not paranoid. '''Hospitals''' – In Turkey, there are two kinds of hospitals (''hastane'')-private and public. Private hospitals are run by associations, private parties, and private universities. Public hospitals are run by the Ministry of Health, public universities, and state-run social security institutions. All mid-to-big size cities, as well as major resort towns, have private hospitals, more than one in many cities, but in a small town all you can find will probably be a public hospital. Be aware that public hospitals are generally crowded. So expect to wait some time to be treated. But for emergency situations this won't be a problem. Although this is not legal, you may also be denied entry to the public hospitals for expensive operations if you don’t have a state-run national (Turkish) insurance or a necessary amount of cash for prepayment which replaces it, though showing a respected credit card may solve this problem. Emergency situations are exception and you'll be treated without prepayment etc. A travel health insurance is highly recommended because the better private hospitals operate with the “user-pays” principle and their rates are much inflated compared with the public hospitals. Also make sure your insurance includes air transport (like a helicopter) if you are going to visit rural wilderness areas of Black Sea or Eastern regions, so you can be dispatched to a city with high-standard hospitals on time. In the outlying hoods of cities, there are usually also policlinics which can treat simpler illnesses or injuries. In the villages all you can find are little clinics (''sağlık ocağı'', literally “health-house”) which have a very limited supply and staff, though they can effectively treat simple illnesses or provide antibody against, for example, snake bite. On road signage, hospitals (and roads leading to hospitals) are shown with an “H” (over the dark blue background), whereas village clinics are shown with a red crescent sign, Turkish equivalent of red cross. There is an emergency ward (''acil servis'') open 24 hours a day in every hospital. Suburban policlinics don’t have to provide one, but some of them are open 24-hr anyway. Village clinics do certainly have a much limited opening hours (generally 8 am to sunset). '''Dentists''' – There are lots of private dentist offices in the cities, especially along the main streets. Look for the ''diş hekimi'' signs around, it won’t take long before you see one. Most dentists work on an appointment, although they may check or start the treatment on your turning up without an appointment if their schedule is okay. A simple treatment for a tooth decay costs about TRY40 on the average. Ordinary toothbrushes and pastes (both local and international brands) can be obtained from supermarkets. If you want something special, you may check out pharmacies. It is okay to brush teeth with tap water. '''Pharmacies''' - There are pharmacies (''eczane'' in Turkish) in all cities and many towns. Pharmacies are open 08:30-19:00, however every town has at least one drugstore on duty overnight (''nöbetçi eczane''), all other pharmacies in the town usually display its name, address and telephone numbers on their windows. Most basic drugs, including painkillers such as ''Aspirin'', are sold over the counter, although only in pharmacies. '''Mosquitoes''' - Keeping a mosquito (Mosquitoes) repellent handy is a good idea. Although the risk of malaria anywhere in the country is long gone (except the southernmost areas near the Syrian border which used to have a very low level of risk until up to 1980s), mosquitoes can be annoying especially in coastal areas out of cities, including vacation towns at nights between June and September. In some towns, especially the ones near the deltas, mosquito population is so large that people desert the streets during the “mosquito raid” which occurs between the sunset and one hour after that. DEET-containing aerosol repellents (some are suitable to apply to the skin while others, the ones that are in tall tin cans are for making a room mosquito-free before going to bed, not to be applied onto skin, so choose what you buy wisely) can be obtained from supermarkets and pharmacies. There are also solid repellents coming in a tablet form which are used with their special devices indoors having an electricity socket. They release scentless chemicals into the air of the room which disturb the senses of mosquitoes and make them unable to “find” you. The tablets, together with their devices, can also be obtained from supermarkets and pharmacies. Beware! You shouldn’t touch those tablets with bare hands. '''Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever''' (''Kırım-Kongo kanamalı ateşi'' in Turkish, shortly ''KKKA'') is a serious viral disease and transmitted by a '''tick''' (''kene'') species. It can kill the infected person in a very short time, usually within three or four days. This disease has claimed more than 20 lives in Turkey within the past two years. The biggest risk is in the rural parts (''not'' urban centres) of Tokat , Corum, Yozgat, Amasya, and Sivas provinces, all situated in an area where disease-carrying tick thrives because of the area’s location between the humid climate of maritime Black Sea Region and arid climate of Central Anatolia. Authorities recommend to wear light coloured clothing which makes distinguishing a tick clinged to your body easier. It’s also recommended to wear long trousers rather than shorts if you plan to walk through dense and or tall grass areas (the usual habitat for ticks). If you see a tick on your body or clothing, in '''no means try to pull it out''' since this may cause the tick’s head (and its mouth where it carries the virus) sticking inside your skin. Instead, go to the nearest hospital immediately to seek urgent expert aid. Being late to show up in hospital (and to diagnose) is number one killer in this disease. Symptoms are quite like that of flu and a number of other illnesses, so doctor should be informed about the possibility of Crim.-Cong. hemorr. fever and be shown the tick if possible. Coastal Black Sea Region, Marmara Region, Aegean and Mediterranean coasts, and East Anatolia are generally deemed free of this disease (and also free of the disease-carrying species of tick) with no casualties. But in the name of being cautious, you should head for the nearest hospital anyway if you are bitten by (most likely an innocent) tick. Also remember that if you should head for the danger zone described above, ticks are not active in winter. Their active period is April to October, so is the danger period. '''Public restrooms''' - Though many main squares and streets in the cities have a public restroom, if you cannot manage to find one, look for the nearest mosque, where you will see a public restroom in a corner of, or below its courtyard. Despite the fact that there is no shortage of cheap toilet papers anywhere in the country, however, you are unlikely to find toilet paper in almost any of the public restrooms (except lavatories of restaurants –including the road restaurants, hotels and most of the cafés and bars, of course). Instead, you are likely to find a bidét or a tap (Don't be puzzled. That's because devout Muslims use water instead of paper to clean up and paper usually used as a dryer after cleaning.). So it is a good idea to have a roll of toilet paper in your backpack during your walkings for sightseeing. It is best to take your single roll of toilet paper from home or bathroom of the hotel you’re staying at, because the smallest size available in Turkey market is 4-rolls per package (8-rolls per package being the commonest) which would last very long (actually longer than your trip, unless you will do all the road down to India overland). It isn’t expensive but it takes unnecessary backpack space, or unnecessary landfill space if you won’t use it liberally and won’t take the unused rolls back to home as an unusual souvenir from Turkey. In the better places on the road in the country there are rest rooms that are maintained and an attendant ready to collect TRY0.50 to TRY1. from the tourist for the privilege of using one. Restroom is ''tuvalet'' in colloquial Turkish, though you’ll more likely to see ''WC'' signs, complete with diagrams and doors signed ''Bay'' or ''Bayan'' (with their rather crude translations: ‘Men’, ‘Women’). '''Menstrual products''' – Different types and designs of disposable pads are widely available. Look around in the supermarkets. However, Turkish women prefer tampons much less than European women do, so they are rarer. They are available only in some of the pharmacies. '''Hamam''' - If you haven't been to one, you've missed one of life's great experiences and never been clean. You can catch your inner peace with history and water in a bath (hamam). See hamams in Istanbul (Istanbul#Hamams). Respect Things to do Turks are a very friendly, polite and hospitable people, sometimes even to a fault. * When you are invited into a Turkish home, make sure to bring them a gift. Anything is fine from flowers to chocolate and indeed something representative from your country (but not wine and other alcoholic beverages if you are about to meet the host or if you do not know them well enough, as many Turks, for religious reasons or not, do not drink alcoholic beverages, and that is why it would be considered inappropriate as a gift). When you arrive at the house take off your shoes just outside or immediately inside the door, unless the owner explicitly allows you to keep them on. Even then, it might be more polite to remove your shoes. And if you really want their respect, thank your host for the invitation and compliment them. When inside the house, don't ask for anything for they will surely offer it. The host will make sure to make you feel at home, so don't take advantage of their kindness. * People in Turkey respect elderly people, so in a bus, tram, subway and in other forms public transportation, young(er) people will always offer you a place to sit if you are an old(er) person as well as a handicapped person or a pregnant woman or have children with you. * It is respectful to bend slightly (not a complete bow) when greeting someone older or in a position of authority. * Try to use some Turkish phrases. They will be complimentary if you try, and there is no reason to be embarrassed. They realize that Turkish is very difficult for foreigners and won't scoff at all at your mistakes; on the contrary, they will be delighted for trying it, even if they may not always be able to understand your pronunciation! Things to avoid Turkish people understand that visitors are usually not aware of Turkish culture and customs, and tend to be tolerant of blunders in this regard by foreigners. There are, however, some which will meet with universal disapproval, and these should be avoided at all costs: '''Politics:''' * Turks in general have very strong nationalistic views, and would view any criticisms of their country and expressions and attitudes insulting the Turkish flag, the republic and Atatürk - the founding father of the republic as very offensive and with varying degrees of hostility. To avoid getting into the bad raps of your hosts, it is advisable to only praise the country and avoid bringing up anything negative about it. * Don't mention the Armenian Genocide, Kurdish separatism and the Cyprus problem. These are extremely sensitive topics and are definitely to be avoided. Turkish society has a highly emotional approach to these issues. '''Religion:''' * Turkey is a predominantly Muslim country, though secular, and although you will see varying degrees of Islamic practice in Turkey, with most Turks subscribing to a liberal form of Islam, it is extremely rude to insult or mock some of its traditions, and ensure that you do not speak badly of the Islamic religion. The call to prayer (''ezan'') is read 5 times a day from the speakers of the numerous mosques throughout Turkey. Do not mock or mimick these calls, as Turks are extremely proud and sensitive of their heritage and culture, and will be very offended. '''Social custom and etiquette breaches:''' * Don't try to shake hands with a devout Muslim (that is veiled) woman unless she offers her hand first, and with a devout Muslim (often recognizable with a cap and beard) man unless he offers his hand first. * Don't blow your nose during meals, even discreetly. This is considered extremely rude. * Don't pick your teeth during meals, even discreetly. This is considered extremely rude. * Do not put your feet up while sitting and try not to show the bottom of your feet to someone. This is considered rude. * Don't point with your finger at someone, even discreetly. This is considered rude. * Don't chew gum while having a conversation and during public occasions. This is considered extremely rude. * Don't touch someone without permission. This is considered extremely rude. * Don't bear hug or back slap someone, especially in formal situations and occasions and with someone you just met and or you do not know well enough. This is considered very rude. * Don't use swear words during conversation or while talking to oneself in public. This is considered extremely rude. * Public drunkenness (especially the loud and obnoxious variety) is definitely not appreciated and is frowned upon, especially in more conservative areas of the country. Drunken tourists may also attract the attention of pickpockets. However, what is absolutely not tolerated is drunkenness accompanied by physical aggressiveness towards other people. This may incur a fine, and if this is repeated, a heavier fine and or a visit to the police station may result (and if you are a foreign tourist, deportation from the country). * Certain gestures, common in the western world, are considered rude expressions in this culture. People tend to be tolerant if they can see you are a foreigner. They know you are probably doing it subconsciously, but if you take the time to keep these in mind, you won’t have any misunderstandings. Making an ‘O’ with your thumb and forefinger (as if to say “OK!”) is rude because you are making the gesture for a hole - which has connotations referring to homosexuality in the Turkish psyche. Avoid clicking your tongue. Some people do this subconsciously at the beginning of a sentence. It is a gesture of dismissal. Also the "got your nose" gesture which is made by making a fist and putting your thumb between your forefinger and the middle finger is considered the equivalent of the middle finger in Turkey. Other things to watch for * Public displays of affection in larger cities and tourist resorts is tolerated but might invite unnecessary stares from the public. In more rural areas it is frowned upon and is to be avoided. Gay and lesbian travellers should avoid any outward signs of affection, as this will definitely invite unnecessary stares from the public. However overt displays of affection regardless of sexual orientation is regarded as inappropriate. * Avoid shouting or talking loudly in public. Talking loudly is generally considered rude, especially on public transportation. Talking on a mobile phone on public transportation is not considered rude but normal, unless the conversation is too "private". Mosques Because of religious traditions, all women are required to wear head scarves and not to wear miniskirts or shorts upon entering a mosque (or a church and synagogue). The same goes for the tombs of Islamic saints. If you don’t have a shawl or a scarf to put on your head, you can borrow one at the entrance. However, in big mosques that attract lots of tourists, especially in Istanbul, the head scarf rules are somewhat relaxed. In such mosques, no one is warned about their clothes, or because of their lack of head scarves. Even if you have to wear a head scarf, you don't have to worry about how to wear it properly, just put it onto the crown of your head (you may wrap it under your chin or behind your neck, lest it slip), that will be excessively adequate. Also, men are required to wear trousers, not shorts, upon entering a mosque (or a church and synagogue), however nowadays no one is warned about their clothes (at least in big cities). You may find when entering a mosque in more rural areas you will be expected to follow all traditional procedures. During the prayer time, worshippers choose to line in the front rows of the mosques, at such a time stay behind and try not to be noisy. During the Friday noon prayer, which is the most attended, you might be asked to leave the mosque, don’t take it personally, it is because the mosque will be very crowded, there just won’t be enough room for both the worshippers and the sightseers. You will be able to enter back as soon as worshippers are out of the gate. Unlike some other Middle Eastern cultures, eating, drinking, smoking (which is strictly banned), talking or laughing loudly, sleeping or just lying, even sitting on the ground inside the mosques is frowned upon in Turkish culture. Public displays of affection are definitely taboo. All shoes should be removed before entering any mosque. There are shoes desks inside the mosques, though you can choose to hold them in your hand (a plastic bag which would be used only for this purpose would help) during your visit. Some mosques have safeboxes with a lock instead of shoe desks. Although there are “official” opening hours, which are typically shorter than what the mosque is actually open, at the entrances of the most sightseen mosques, they don’t really mean anything. You can visit a mosque as long as its gates are open. Despite the odd tourists who do not conform to the dress code, it is best to dress conservatively and to follow all traditional procedures, when entering mosques, tombs and other places of worship; not only because it is required but also as a sign of respect. At mosques and tombs that have been officially turned into museums, there is no need to follow any traditional procedures. Shoes are not removed when entering those places and women don't have to wear head scarves. Gay and lesbian travellers Turkey is considered to be quite safe for gay and lesbian travelers, and violence against homosexuals is quite rare. There are no laws against homosexuality in Turkey, but same-sex relationships are not recognized by the government and flaunting your orientation openly is very likely to draw stares and whispers. Connect Dial '''112''' for an ambulance in anywhere, from any telephone, without a charge. In case of a fire, dial '''110'''; for police, call '''155'''. However, in rural areas there is not a police coverage, so dial '''156''' for gendarme, a military unit for rural security. All these numbers are free of charge and can be called from a telephone booth without inserting a calling card, or any phone including cell phones. Telephone While not as common as they used to be, possibly because of the widespread use of mobile phones which are virtually used by the whole population in the country, '''public pay phones''' can still be found at the sides of central squares and major streets in towns and cities and around post offices (''PTT''), especially around their outer walls. With the phase-out of old magnetic cards, public phones now operate with chip ''telekom'' cards which are available in 30, 60 or 120 units and can be obtained at post offices, newspaper and tobacco kiosks. (However emergency numbers can be called without card or anything from these phones.) You can also use your credit card on these phones, though it may not work in the off chance. All phones in the booths have Turkish and English instructions and menus, many also have German and French in addition. There are also telephones available in some kiosks and shops where you pay cash after your call. To spot these, look for ''kontürlü telefon'' signs. These telephones are more expensive than the ones at the booths, though. It is estimated that approximately 98% of the population of Turkey lives within the coverage areas of Turkey’s three '''cell phone''' line providers. Line providers from most countries have roaming agreements with one or more of these companies. Pre-paid mobile phone SIM cards can be purchased for approximately TRY20-50. These can be purchased at the airport on arrival or from the many outlets in Istanbul and other large cities. Providers include Vodaphone. Here is a quick list of '''telephone codes''' for some major cities and towns of touristic importance: - style "vertical-align:top;width:50%;" * '''212'''—Istanbul-European Side (Istanbul European Side) * '''216'''—Istanbul-Asian Side (Istanbul Asian Side), and Princes' Islands (Istanbul Princes' Islands) * '''224'''—Bursa, and Uludağ * '''232'''—Izmir, and Çeşme * '''242'''—Antalya, Alanya, Kemer, and Kaş * '''252'''—Muğla, Bodrum, Marmaris, and Fethiye * '''256'''—Aydın, and Kuşadası (Kusadasi) style "vertical-align:top;width:50%;" * '''258'''—Denizli, and Pamukkale * '''286'''—Çanakkale, and Gallipoli * '''312'''—Ankara * '''332'''—Konya * '''384'''—Nevşehir (Nevsehir), and most of Cappadocia (though a few well-known Cappadocian towns which are parts of Aksaray Province have '''382''' as their area code) Prior to the telephone code, dial '''0''' for intercity calls. Numbers starting with '''0800''' are pay-free, whereas the ones starting with '''0900''' are high-fee services. 7-digit numbers starting with '''444''' (mainly used by companies) are charged as local calls wherever they are dialed in Turkey. Dial '''00''' prior to country code for international calls from Turkey. When calling into Turkey, the international country code that should prefix city code and phone number is '''90'''. Post '''Post offices''' are recognizable by their yellow and black ''PTT'' signs. Letters and cards should be taken to a post office since the postboxes on the streets are rare (and there is no guarantee that they are emptied at all, even if you spot one). Nevertheless, Turkish Post (PTT) prints some beautiful stamps. '''Postage''' for cards and letters costs TRY0.80 for domestic shipments, and TRY1.10 (about €0.55) for international shipments to most countries, although it may be a little more (up to TRY1.35) for the most distant countries; PTT website for current rates. Main post offices in cities are open 08:30-20:30, whereas post offices in towns and smaller post offices in cities are usually open 08:30-17:30. '''''Poste restante''''' general delivery letters should be sent to an address in the format of: official full name of the addressee (because the receiver will be asked for an ID card, passport or anything that can prove he or she is proper recipient) + ''POSTRESTANT'' + name of the quarter neighbourhood district if in a city where there is more than one post office or name of the town where the post office is + postal code (if known, not obligatory, generally available at the entrance or on the interior walls of the post office itself) + the name of the province in which the quarter town of the post office is located. The receiver has to pay TRY0.50 upon receipt of mail. Internet Although not as widespread as they used to be in the last decade with more and more Turkish households tuning in DSL connections, '''''internet cafe'''''s or ''net cafe''s are still available in reasonable numbers in cities and towns. In fact, any major town has at least one. All of them have good DSL connections, and price for connection is about more or less TRY1.50 hour. Most, if not all, of these internet-cafés also have cd-writers which are available for anyone who makes an additional payment. Free '''wireless''' connections are available at some airports, hotels and restaurants cafés (especially in big cities). Some webpages are blocked by court order ——although most internet cafes get around these blocks by tricks on proxy settings. Please see following web sites for information on Telecommunication services : TTNET, DSL internet providerthe largest mobile operator also provides 3G internet mobile operator also provides 3G internetoperator also provides 3G internet - Fi '''Hotel:''' Every hotel has their own Wi-Fi. Some hotels do have trouble with their network setup or the connection due to the historical location however at the least you will have free wi-fi at your hotel. All you have to do is to learn the wifi password to access the internet. '''Cafes:''' Every café, bistro, restaurant share their internet with their guests. Even the small restaurants now have internet access. Stability and speed depend on where you are and what kind of café, bistro or restaurant you are in. Starbucks, Nero etc. typically have stable wi-fi unless very crowded. If you are in a Starbucks all you have to do is connect your device (SSID should be TTNET or DorukNet, AND if you are in Nero DorukNet) and fill out some basic information for verification that you have to fill. After that, you are ready to go. And if you are in the other restaurant or cafés you can just ask to your waiter to get SSID and Password and after that you are ready to go. '''Public Center and Squares:''' Municipality of Istanbul recently announced that free public wi-fi will be available in most common city centers and squares. All you have to do is (when you near of one of these centers of course) register your id via your cell phone and you will get an access password. '''Wi-Fi on the Go:''' You can rent a mobile wifi hotspot during your stay in Turkey. It works based on 3G connection in the whole country, and you can connect up to 10 devices at the same time. These pocket-sized devices can be easily booked online. While there are plenty of international companies that rent a mobile hotspot, mainly two local companies are operating: - Alldaywifi; - Rent 'n Connect; Commons:Category:Turkey WikiPedia:Turkey Dmoz:Regional Middle East Turkey
Persian motifs. There are three levels of seating, the Main Floor above the orchestra pit, the Mezzanine, and the Gallery (balcony). The exterior of the attached 10-story office building features a facade with Asian motifs which, when illuminated at night, can be seen for several blocks. The Fox Theatre in St. Louis, Missouri is (on the interior) its architectural "near" twin with about 500 fewer seats. The Detroit Fox is part of the Fox Building, while the St. Louis Fox