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ancient style


Francia

of the Byzantine emperor; Childebert I is shown in profile in the ancient style, wearing a toga and a diadem. The solidus (solidus (coin)) and triens were minted in Francia between 534 and 679. The denarius (or denier (French denier)) appeared later, in the name of Childeric II and various non-royals around 673–675. A Carolingian denarius replaced the Merovingian one, and the Frisian (Frisians) penning (Pfennig), in Gaul from 755 to the 11th century. In the 4th century, Roman power decreased and Nijmegen became part of the Frankish (Francia) kingdom. It has been contended that in the 8th century Emperor Charlemagne maintained his ''palatium'' in Nijmegen on at least four occasions. During his brief deposition of 830, the emperor Louis the Pious was sent to Nijmegen by his son Lothar I. Thanks to the Waal river, trade flourished. The Christian reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula began soon after the Islamic conquest of the Visigothic Kingdom. The victory over the Moors at the Battle of Covadonga in 722 was the first major formative event. Charlemagne reconquered the western Pyrenees and Septimania in 778 and formed a Marca Hispanica to defend the border of Christian Frankia (Francia) against the aggressions of Muslim Al-Andalus. After the advent of the Crusades, much of the ideology of ''reconquista'' was subsumed within the wider context of crusading. Even before the Crusades, there was a steady trickle of soldiers arriving from elsewhere in Europe to participate in the ''Reconquista'' as an act of Christian penitence. Crusaders arrived in the County of Portugal, to be led by Afonso Henriques. By 1249, the reconquest of Portugal was complete and the Moors banished. The ''Reconquista'' ("Reconquest") is the centuries-long period of expansion of Iberia's Christian kingdoms. The Reconquista is viewed as beginning with the Battle of Covadonga in 722, and was concurrent with the period of Muslim rule on the Iberian peninsula. The Christian army's victory over Muslim forces led to the creation of the Christian Kingdom of Asturias along the northwestern coastal mountains. Shortly after, in 739, Muslim forces were driven from Galicia (Galicia (Spain)), which was to eventually host one of medieval Europe's holiest sites, Santiago de Compostela and was incorporated into the new Christian kingdom. Muslim armies had also moved north of the Pyrenees, but they were defeated by Frankish forces at the Battle of Poitiers (Battle of Tours), Frankia (Francia). Later, Frankish (Franks) forces established Christian counties (Marca Hispanica) on the southern side of the Pyrenees. These areas were to grow into the kingdoms of Navarre, Aragon and Catalonia. ) is the reversed base of an ancient Ionic (Ionic order) column that played an important role in the ceremony surrounding the installation (Carantania#The Ducal Inauguration) of the princes of Carantania in the Early Middle Ages. After the incorporation into the Frankish Empire (Francia) the procedure held in Slovene language was continued as the first part of the coronation of the Dukes of Carinthia (Duchy of Carinthia), followed by a mass (mass (liturgy)) at Maria Saal cathedral and the installation at the Duke's chair, where he swore an oath in German (German language) and received the homage of the estates. History Several sources attest the existence of a distinctive Gallican rite in the Frankish (Franks) lands between the 5th and 9th centuries. The Celtic Rite and Mozarabic rite, which are liturgically related to the Gallican, are sometimes collectively referred to as "Gallican" as opposed to the different structure of the Roman rite (Roman Rite). Lack of a central authority led to the development of local traditions of the Gallican rite in Francia, sharing a basic structure but varying in details. These traditions endured until the Carolingian dynasty. During a papal visit in 752-3, Pope Stephen II had Mass (Eucharist) celebrated using Roman chant. According to Charlemagne, his father Pepin (Pippin the Younger) and Chrodegang of Metz abolished the Gallican rites in favor of the Roman use, in order to strengthen ties with Rome that would culminate in Charlemagne's elevation to Holy Roman Emperor. Charlemagne completed the job his father had begun, so that by the 9th century the Gallican rite and chant had effectively been eliminated. However, the Roman chant brought to the Carolingian churches was incomplete, and ended up incorporating musical and liturgical elements from the local Gallican traditions. The resulting Carolingian chant, which developed into Gregorian chant, was a Romanized chant, but one in which traces of the lost Gallican repertory may still be found.


Jamaica

to wear dreadlocks instead. In 1801, under the command of Captain Sir Thomas Williams (Thomas Williams (Royal Navy officer)). ''Vanguard'' sailed from Portsmouth on 20 April to join the Baltic (Baltic Sea) fleet. The fleet, under Vice Admiral Pole


Sri Lanka

. right thumb A Chakravati wears a ''pancha'' in an ancient style. First century BCE CE. Amaravati, Andhra Pradesh (Image:Chakravatin.JPG). Musee Guimet The Pancha is considered formal wear all over the country. In addition to all government and traditional family functions, the Pancha is also considered acceptable at country clubs and at other establishments that enforce strict formal dress codes. The same is true across the Indian subcontinent, particularly in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka


Pakistan

subcontinent for centuries. Nastaʿlīq is a portmanteau word of naskh (naskh (script)) of Arabic and ta'aliq, (an ancient style of the Persian alphabet used in Iran). Both of the scripts of Iranian and Arabic roots were amalgamated and invented by Ameer Ali Tabrezi in Tabrez to be used as the standard characters to write the Persian language. However, nasta'līq was introduced in the subcontinent during the era of the great Mughal Emperor Shahjahan. During the second half of the 20th century; it has been used by the Punjabi (Punjabis) Muslims of Pakistan due to the absence of a writing system. Thus the Nasta'liq writing system of Urdu (the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan) has been renamed Shahmukhi to write and record the Punjabi language, which is mainly spoken and confined within the province of West Punjab in Pakistan. The text of Nasta'aliq is written in the right to left direction and from right page to left page. Succeeding his father, Alexander took over the Persian war himself. During a decade of campaigning, Alexander conquered the whole Persian Empire, overthrowing the Persian king Darius III. The conquered lands included Asia Minor, Assyria, the Levant, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Media (Medes), Persia, and parts of modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the steppes of central Asia. The years of constant campaigning had taken their toll however, and Alexander died in 323 BC. Nur Jahan died in 1645 at age 68, and is buried at Shahdara Bagh in Lahore, Pakistan in a tomb she had built herself, near the tomb of Jahangir. Her brother Asaf Khan's tomb is also located nearby. The tomb attracts many visitors, both Pakistani and foreign, who come to enjoy pleasant walks in its beautiful gardens. All had been personally laid out and designed by Nur Jahan herself. This period of the Cold War saw an increase of the Agency's anti-Soviet activities around the world. Notably he oversaw covert assistance to the mujahadeen resistance in Afghanistan, with a budget of over $1 billion, working closely with Akhtar Abdur Rahman (the Director General of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence directorate). The agency aided Solidarity (Solidarity (Polish trade union)) movement in Poland, and a number of coups and attempted coups in South (South America)- and Central America. Commons:Category:Pakistan WikiPedia:Pakistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Pakistan


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